Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition

Front Cover
Multilingual Matters, 2004 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 201 pages
This text is a systematic attempt to address the issue of fossilization in relation to a fundamental question in second language acquisition research, which is: why are learners, adults in particular, unable to develop the level of competence they have aspired to in spite of continuous and sustained exposure to the target language, adequate motivation to learn and sufficient opportunity to practice?

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Contents

Introduction
1
Fossilization and Ultimate Attainment
5
Differential successfailure
7
A Conceptual Framework
8
An Outline of the Book
10
What is Fossilization?
12
Selinkers Definitions
14
Others View
16
Transfer of Thinking for Speaking
75
Preprogramming
77
The Sorace 1993 study
80
Summary
85
A Microscopic Analysis Some Empirical Evidence
87
The longitudinal approach
88
The typicalerror approach
90
The advancedlearner approach
92

Dictionary Definitions
18
An Alternative Definition
19
Key Issues
21
Is fossilization a product or a process?
22
Summary
23
Behavioral Reflexes and Causal Variables
25
Sample Explanations
28
Quality of input
30
Learning inhibiting learning
31
Lack of understanding
32
Change in emotional state
33
Avoidance
34
Lack of acculturation
35
Will to maintain identity
36
Two Primary Determinants of Lack of Ability
38
Summary
42
A Macroscopic Analysis Critical Period Effects
44
CPH in FLA and SLA
46
The Modular Nature of CP
55
Critical Period Effects on Language Learning
57
Summary
62
A Macroscopic Analysis Native Language Transfer
65
Transferinspired Delay in L2 Learning
68
Transfer to Somewhere and Transfer to Nowhere
69
The correctivefeedback approach
95
The lengthofresidence approach
97
Two recent longitudinal studies
99
Is stabilization synonymous with fossilization?
102
Should a longitudinal study last five years or longer?
104
The Modular Nature of Fossilization
106
Linguistic Features Prone to Fossilization
112
The Multiple Effects Principle
118
Summary
121
Second Language Instruction and Fossilization
125
To What Extent Does Instruction Aid Acquisition?
126
Explicit or implicit instruction?
129
Is grammar instruction necessary?
132
The zone of capability
136
To What Extent Does Instruction Promote Fossilization?
147
Classroom input
151
Pedagogic strategies
157
Opportunity for use of language
161
Summary and Conclusion
166
Implications for Research and Practice
169
General Directions for Future Research
174
References
177
Index
198
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About the author (2004)

ZhaoHong Han is Associate Professor of Linguistics and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests are in issues of second language learnability, teachability, and fossilization. Her research has appeared in journals such as Applied Linguistics, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, Language Teaching Research, and TESOL Quarterly.

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