Fossilization in Adult Second Language Acquisition
This text is a systematic attempt to address the issue of fossilization in relation to a fundamental question in second language acquisition research, which is: why are learners, adults in particular, unable to develop the level of competence they have aspired to in spite of continuous and sustained exposure to the target language, adequate motivation to learn and sufficient opportunity to practice?
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Fossilization and Ultimate Attainment
A Conceptual Framework
An Outline of the Book
What is Fossilization?
Transfer of Thinking for Speaking
The Sorace 1993 study
A Microscopic Analysis Some Empirical Evidence
The longitudinal approach
The typicalerror approach
The advancedlearner approach
An Alternative Definition
Is fossilization a product or a process?
Behavioral Reflexes and Causal Variables
Quality of input
Learning inhibiting learning
Lack of understanding
Change in emotional state
Lack of acculturation
Will to maintain identity
Two Primary Determinants of Lack of Ability
A Macroscopic Analysis Critical Period Effects
CPH in FLA and SLA
The Modular Nature of CP
Critical Period Effects on Language Learning
A Macroscopic Analysis Native Language Transfer
Transferinspired Delay in L2 Learning
Transfer to Somewhere and Transfer to Nowhere
The correctivefeedback approach
The lengthofresidence approach
Two recent longitudinal studies
Is stabilization synonymous with fossilization?
Should a longitudinal study last five years or longer?
The Modular Nature of Fossilization
Linguistic Features Prone to Fossilization
The Multiple Effects Principle
Second Language Instruction and Fossilization
To What Extent Does Instruction Aid Acquisition?
Explicit or implicit instruction?
Is grammar instruction necessary?
The zone of capability
To What Extent Does Instruction Promote Fossilization?
Opportunity for use of language
Summary and Conclusion
Implications for Research and Practice
General Directions for Future Research
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ability acquire adult L2 learners adult learners adult SLA Bialystok Chapter Chien-Shiung Wu classroom cognitive communicative competence complexity conceptual constraints context corrective feedback critical period Critical Period Hypothesis DeKeyser developmental effects Ellis English Eubank evidence explicit instruction explicit knowledge factors forms fossilizable fossilization French function hence Hulstijn Hypothesis implicit informants interaction intra-learner Johnson and Newport Kellerman L1 influence L2 acquisition L2 input L2 learning L2 ultimate attainment lack Lamendella language transfer lexical Lightbown linguistic domains linguistic features MacWhinney maturationally modular nature morphemes native language native speakers native-like near-native Output Hypothesis perspective phonology principles production proficiency psycholinguistic restructuring rules Schachter Schumann second language acquisition Selinker semantic sensitive period Sharwood Smith silization SLA literature SLA research Sorace stabilization strategies structure subsystems suggests Swain syntactic target language target-like teacher thinking for speaking tion unaccusative verbs unaccusatives understanding variables verbs