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ADW ERTISE MENT,
The plan of the little work begun in this volume has been considerably enlarged since it was first undertaken, and the author fears that a critical eye may be able to detect some traces of this variation from the original design in the manner of treating one or two subjects. He would be glad if he might believe that this was its chief defect. But he is most desirous that the object which he has had in view should be understood.
He thought it probable that his work might fall into the hands of two different classes of readers, whose wants might not always exactly coincide, but were equally worthy of attention: one consisting of persons who wish to acquire something more than a superficial acquaintance with Greek history, but who have neither leisure nor means to study it for themselves in its original sources; the other of such as have access to the ancient authors, but often feel the need of a guide and an interpreter. The first of these classes is undoubtedly by far the largest, and it is for its satisfaction that the work is principally designed. But the author did not think that this ought to prevent him from entering into the discussion of subjects which he is aware must be chiefly, if not solely, interesting to readers of the other description, and he has therefore dwelt on the earlier part of the history at greater length than would have been proper in a merely popular narrative. Perhaps he may venture to add, that it is the part which seemed to him to have been most neglected by preceding English writers, and to deserve more attention than it had commonly received among us. It was written before the first (the last published) volume of Mr. Clinton's Fasti had appeared.
Another consequence resulting from the nature of his plan is, that he has found it necessary to subjoin a greater number of notes and references than may seem to accord with the unpretending form of the work. He regrets the room which they occupy, and would have been glad to have thought himself at liberty to omit them. But he believes he may safely appeal to the experience of every one conversant with these matters, to attest that they have not been needlessly multiplied. Wherever it could be done without presuming too much on the reader's knowledge, he has contented himself with generally pointing out the sources from which he has drawn, and has only introduced a particular reference where either his conclusions might be thought questionable, or the precise passage which he had in his mind was likely to escape notice, or was peculiarly interesting and instructive. If, however, he should be thought not to have observed the right mean in this respect, or sometimes to have addressed himself to too narrow a circle, or even to have amused himself instead of his readers, he consoles himself by the prospect that in the progress of his work, as its subject becomes more
generally familiar and attractive, he shall have less and less need of indulgence on this head. . There is another point, on which, though of little importance, he wishes to guard against a misunderstanding to which he may have exposed himself. Some readers may remark that the system of orthography which he here follows is widely different from the one adopted in another work to which his name is annexed, and it may be inferred that he thinks that which he now uses the best. To prevent such an imputation, he desires it should be known that he looks upon the established system, if an accidental custom may be so called, as a mass of anomalies, the growth of ignorance and chance, equally repugnant to good taste and to common sense. But he is aware that the public — perhaps to show foreigners that we do not live under the despotism of an academy—clings to these anomalies with a tenacity proportioned to their absurdity, and is jealous of all encroachment on ground consecrated by prescription to the free play of blind caprice. He has not thought himself at liberty, in a work like the present, to irritate these prejudices by innovations, however rational and conformable to good and ancient, though neglected usage, and has therefore complied as closely as may be with the fashion of the day. But with respect to one very numerous class of words, he has not had the benefit of this guidance, nor is he able to plead the like excuse where he has done amiss. As to the mode of writing Greek names in English, there is no established rule or usage of sufficient authority to direct him in all cases, and he has therefore here been left to follow his own discretion. Some readers, perhaps, will think that he has abused this liberty, and will complain that he has not observed a strict uniformity. His own taste would have inclined him to prefer the English to the Latin forms of Greek names and words in every instance; but as the contrary practice is the more general, and most persons seem to think that the other ought to be confined to terms which have become familiar and naturalized in our language, he has not ventured to apply his principle with rigid consistency, where the reader's eye would perhaps have been hurt by it, but has suffered anomaly to reign in this, as in the other department of orthography. He would not fear much severity of censure if those only should condemn him who have tried the experiment themselves, or can point out the example of any writer who has given universal satisfaction in this respect. The only great liberty he has taken is that of writing the real names of the Greek deities, instead of substituting those of the Italian mythology by which they have hitherto been supplanted, though even here he could now defend his boldness by some respectable precedents.
Causes which render the Subject obscure . - The Pelasgians—How represented by Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, and Strabo—Traces of the Pelasgians in Thessaly. - - - - - - In Epirus-In Boeotia and Attica–In Peloponnesus, especially in Argolis–In Achaia . - - In Arcadia–Pelasgian Origin of the Arcadians—Various Names of the Pelasgian Tribes—The Caucones The Leleges—The Thracians influence of the Thracians on Greek Pelasgians . - - - - - - - Opinions of the Greeks as to the Origin of the Earliest R urse of the Pelasgian Migrations . Relation between the Pelasgians and the Greeks-Observations of Herodotus on the Pelasgian Language —Language of the Pelasgians not wholly foreign to the Greeks - - - - - - - Inference from the Pelasgian Settlements in Italy— Civilization of the Pelasgians . - - - *::: of their savage Condition—Traditions of their amiliarity with the Arts of Life—Monuments of the
theus, and Peteus . - - - - - Colony of Cadmus-Opinions about Cadmus–Legend of Pelops .
General Arguments in favour of the Reality of the Colonies from the East-Coincidence between Greek and Egyptian Traditions . - - - - - in what Sense Egyptians and Phoenicians may be said to have Colonized Greece—Traces of the Phoenicians in the Greek Legends under other Names-Influence of the Phoenicians on Greece . - - - Explanation of the Legend of Pelops chapter IV, The hellenic nation. "rendency of the Greeks to Personification-Caution required in treating the Heroic Genealogies - The Hellenes in Epirus—Tribes of which the Nation was composed-The Curetes . . . . '. - ... " General view of the Diffusion of the Hellenic Nation —A new Population—A new State of Society .
Fourfold Division of the Greek Nation—The AEolians
Early Distinctions among the Ionians in Attica—Mix
ture of Hellenes with Ionians in Attica—Migrations
to and from Euboea . - - - - - Ionian Dialect . . - - - -
THE HERoes AND THEIR Age, b.c. 1384–1184.
1300–1200 Definition of the Heroic Age–Bellerophon– Perseus . - - - - - - Hercules-Hercules the God–Hercules the Theban Hero . - - - - - - Legends of Hercules in Peloponnesus—Other Adventures of Hercules—Theseus a second Hercules–Attic Kings before Theseus . - Birth of Theseus—His Journey to Athens–Adventures in Crete- Import of the Legend - Minos–His maritime Dominion and Colonies Legend of his Dorian Origin examined—Grounds for rejecting it—Conjecture on the Legend of Minos - - - - - - - Confederacies among the Heroes—The Theban Wars, and the Calydonian Chase–Legend of the Argonautic Expedition - - - Religious Groundwork of the Legend—Its historical Groundwork - - - - - 1184 Jason and Medea—Story of the Trojan War How far Credible—Helen, a mythological Person —Connexion between the Trojan War and the Argonautic Expedition - - - Expedition of Hercules against Troy—Historical Wo: of the Trojan War—Consequences of the at . - - - - - - - Authority of the Homeric Poems with regard to historical Facts—With regard to the State of Society described in them - - -
THE Government, MANNERs, RELtgion, knowledge,
and arts of the Greeks in the heroic age.
57 58 59
acter. - - - - - Friendship-Hospitality-Amusements
Cretan Syssilia–Education." . . . . 123
Enlargement of the Power of the Ephors—Com-
Presidence of the Olympic Games—Athletic Con-
tests—Nemean and Isthmian Games - ... 1
Definitions of various Forms of Government—Ori-
Causes of the short Duration of the tyrannical Dy-
612 Conspiracy of Cylon–Megacles incurs the Guilt
odical Revision of the Laws . - - -
Education of the Athenian Youth—Regulations
togetton ... - - - - - - -
Victories of the Athenians—Hippias at Sparta—
ress of Civilization—Milesian Colonies 203
650 Commerce of the Ionians—Opening of Intercourse
with Egypt - - - - - - -
Cultivation of the Arts-Architecture—Painting 205
Statuary - - - - - - . 206
Poetry-Hesiod . - - . 207
Epic Dialect—Cyclic Poets. . 208
Lyrical Poetry - - - - . 209
Origin of prose Composition—History . . 210
Philosophy–The lonian School . . 211
The Eleatic School . - - - - . 213
or- . . . . . - - - . 214
Pythagorean Philosophy—Institutions of Pythag-
His Pretensions—Pythagoras at Croton . 216.
Object of his Society—Religion of Pythagoras—
His political Views •. 217
Constitution of his Society—His Influence at Cro-
ton . - - - - . . . . .218
510 Parties at Sybaris-Destruction of Sybaris—Sup-
504 pression of the Pythagorean Society . 219
AFFAIRs of the Asiatic GREERs to THE YEAR B. c. 521.
546 Mio War upon Croesus—Capture of Sardi—
522 Spartan Expedition to Samos-Death of Polycra-
tes . - - - - - - - -
521 Revolutions at the Court of Persia—Darius Hys-
taspis mounts the Throne - - - . 228
His Institutions—Their Defects . - - . 229
Persian Manners . - - - - - . 230
FROM THE Accession of darius hyst aspis. To the
BATTLE of Marathon.
Empire of Darius - - . 230
Democedes at Susa—Syloson . 23i
The Scythians . - - - - - . 23.2
513 Darius invades Scythia–Darius repasses the Dan-
Histianus—the Persians invade Paeonia—Macedo-
nia - - - - - - - - -
Tributary to Persia—Histiaeus carried to Susa . 235
501 Invasion of Naxos—Aristagoras excites the Ioni-
ans to revolt . - - - - - . 236
Aristagoras at Sparta—Athens seeks Protection
Intrigues of Histiaeus—The Ionians at Lade . 239
Dionysius the Phocaean–Defeat of the Ionians—
494 Capture of Miletus—Flight of Miltiades : 240.
492 Persian Regulations in Ionia—Expedition of Mar-
donius - - - - - - - -
Quarrel between Athens and Ægina–Demaratus
deposed—Death of Cleomenes . - - -
490 Factions of Ægina—Expedition of Datis and Ar-
taphernes–Siege of Carystus and Eretria . 243
Destruction of Eretria—The Persians at Mara-
thon-Preparations of the Athenians . 244
Miltiades - - - - - . 245
Battle of Marathon . . . 246
Miltiades attacks Paros - - . .247
His Death . - - - - - . 248
FROM Trix Batti.e. or manathon to the eartle or
485 Preparations of Darius–Accession of Xerxes . 248
Onomacritus-Artabanus—Athos and the Helles-
pont . - - - - - - - . 249
480 March of Xerxes—Review of the Persian Army
—Nations which composed it . - - . 250
Persian Fleet—March of Xerxes through Thrace 251
Preparations of the Greeks—The Thessalians—
The Phocians—Boeotia and Argos . . 252.
Themistocles - - - - - - . 253
Aristides-Athenian Marine 254
Crete and Corcyra–Gelo . - - . 255
His Offers rejected—Arthmius of Telea . .256
The Greeks at Tempe—At Artemisium-Move-
ments of the Persian Fleet—Storm at Sepias . 257
Terror of the Greeks—Battles at Artemisium–
Wreck of the Persian Squadron at Coela . . 258.
Leonidas at Thermopylie . - - - . 259
Combat at Thermopyle—The Anopaea - . 260
The Spartans overpowered–Eurytus and Aristod-
Advance of Xerxes—Persians at Delphi . 262: