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The plan of the little work begun in this volume has been considerably enlarged since it was first undertaken, and the author fears that a critical eye may be able to detect some traces of this variation from the original design in the manner of treating one or two subjects. He would be glad if he might believe that this was its chief defect. But he is most desirous that the object which he has had in view should be understood.

He thought it probable that his work might fall into the hands of two different classes of readers, whose wants might not always exactly coincide, but were equally worthy of attention: one consisting of persons who wish to acquire something more than a superficial acquaintance with Greek history, but who have neither leisure nor means to study it for themselves in its original sources; the other of such as have access to the ancient authors, but often feel the need of a guide and an interpreter. The first of these classes is undoubtedly by far the largest, and it is for its satisfaction that the work is principally designed. But the author did not think that this ought to prevent him from entering into the discussion of subjects which he is aware must be chiefly, if not solely, interesting to readers of the other description, and he has therefore dwelt on the earlier part of the history at greater length than would have been proper in a merely popular narrative. Perhaps he may venture to add, that it is the part which seemed to him to have been most neglected by preceding English writers, and to deserve more attention than it had commonly received among us. It was written before the first (the last published) volume of Mr. Clinton's Fasti had appeared.

Another consequence resulting from the nature of his plan is, that he has found it necessary to subjoin a greater number of notes and references than may seem to accord with the unpretending form of the work. He regrets the room which they occupy, and would have been glad to have thought himself at liberty to omit them. But he believes he may safely appeal to the experience of every one conversant with these matters, to attest that they have not been needlessly multiplied. Wherever it could be done without presuming too much on the reader's knowledge, he has contented himself with generally pointing out the sources from which he has drawn, and has only introduced a particular reference where either his conclusions might be thought questionable, or the precise passage which he had in his mind was likely to escape notice, or was peculiarly interesting and instructive. If, however, he should be thought not to have observed the right mean in this respect, or sometimes to have addressed himself to too narrow a circle, or even to have amused himself instead of his readers, he consoles himself by the prospect that in the progress of his work, as its subject becomes more

generally familiar and attractive, he shall have less and less need of indulgence on this head. . There is another point, on which, though of little importance, he wishes to guard against a misunderstanding to which he may have exposed himself. Some readers may remark that the system of orthography which he here follows is widely different from the one adopted in another work to which his name is annexed, and it may be inferred that he thinks that which he now uses the best. To prevent such an imputation, he desires it should be known that he looks upon the established system, if an accidental custom may be so called, as a mass of anomalies, the growth of ignorance and chance, equally repugnant to good taste and to common sense. But he is aware that the public — perhaps to show foreigners that we do not live under the despotism of an academy—clings to these anomalies with a tenacity proportioned to their absurdity, and is jealous of all encroachment on ground consecrated by prescription to the free play of blind caprice. He has not thought himself at liberty, in a work like the present, to irritate these prejudices by innovations, however rational and conformable to good and ancient, though neglected usage, and has therefore complied as closely as may be with the fashion of the day. But with respect to one very numerous class of words, he has not had the benefit of this guidance, nor is he able to plead the like excuse where he has done amiss. As to the mode of writing Greek names in English, there is no established rule or usage of sufficient authority to direct him in all cases, and he has therefore here been left to follow his own discretion. Some readers, perhaps, will think that he has abused this liberty, and will complain that he has not observed a strict uniformity. His own taste would have inclined him to prefer the English to the Latin forms of Greek names and words in every instance; but as the contrary practice is the more general, and most persons seem to think that the other ought to be confined to terms which have become familiar and naturalized in our language, he has not ventured to apply his principle with rigid consistency, where the reader's eye would perhaps have been hurt by it, but has suffered anomaly to reign in this, as in the other department of orthography. He would not fear much severity of censure if those only should condemn him who have tried the experiment themselves, or can point out the example of any writer who has given universal satisfaction in this respect. The only great liberty he has taken is that of writing the real names of the Greek deities, instead of substituting those of the Italian mythology by which they have hitherto been supplanted, though even here he could now defend his boldness by some respectable precedents.

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Causes which render the Subject obscure . - The Pelasgians—How represented by Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, and Strabo—Traces of the Pelasgians in Thessaly. - - - - - - In Epirus-In Boeotia and Attica–In Peloponnesus, especially in Argolis–In Achaia . - - In Arcadia–Pelasgian Origin of the Arcadians—Various Names of the Pelasgian Tribes—The Caucones The Leleges—The Thracians influence of the Thracians on Greek Pelasgians . - - - - - - - Opinions of the Greeks as to the Origin of the Earliest R urse of the Pelasgian Migrations . Relation between the Pelasgians and the Greeks-Observations of Herodotus on the Pelasgian Language —Language of the Pelasgians not wholly foreign to the Greeks - - - - - - - Inference from the Pelasgian Settlements in Italy— Civilization of the Pelasgians . - - - *::: of their savage Condition—Traditions of their amiliarity with the Arts of Life—Monuments of the

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theus, and Peteus . - - - - - Colony of Cadmus-Opinions about Cadmus–Legend of Pelops .

General Arguments in favour of the Reality of the Colonies from the East-Coincidence between Greek and Egyptian Traditions . - - - - - in what Sense Egyptians and Phoenicians may be said to have Colonized Greece—Traces of the Phoenicians in the Greek Legends under other Names-Influence of the Phoenicians on Greece . - - - Explanation of the Legend of Pelops chapter IV, The hellenic nation. "rendency of the Greeks to Personification-Caution required in treating the Heroic Genealogies - The Hellenes in Epirus—Tribes of which the Nation was composed-The Curetes . . . . '. - ... " General view of the Diffusion of the Hellenic Nation —A new Population—A new State of Society .

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Fourfold Division of the Greek Nation—The AEolians
-The Boeotian AEolis-AEolians in the South of
Thessaly . - -
The Minyans—The
AEolians at Corinth-In
In Messenia–In AEtolia - - - - - -
In Locris— General Character of the Æolian Settle-
ments—Origin of the Dorians - - - -
Their Struggles with the Lapiths—Dorians in the
Northwest of Thessaly—Conquest of the Southern
Doris . - - - - - - - - -
Adventures of Xuthus—The Acheans in Thessaly and
Peloponnesus—Their Relation to the Hellenes -
Reasons for thinking them a Branch of the Pelasgians
-They are blended with the AEolians in Thessaly—
Establishment of an AEolian Dynasty among the
Achaeans of Argolis - - - - - -
Achaeans in Laconia–Origin of the Ionians—Their Re-
lation to the Hellenes - - - - - -
Their Establishment in Attica . - - - -
Antiquity of the Ionian Settlements in Peloponnesus—

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Early Distinctions among the Ionians in Attica—Mix

ture of Hellenes with Ionians in Attica—Migrations

to and from Euboea . - - - - - Ionian Dialect . . - - - -

Chapter W.

THE HERoes AND THEIR Age, b.c. 1384–1184.

1300–1200 Definition of the Heroic Age–Bellerophon– Perseus . - - - - - - Hercules-Hercules the God–Hercules the Theban Hero . - - - - - - Legends of Hercules in Peloponnesus—Other Adventures of Hercules—Theseus a second Hercules–Attic Kings before Theseus . - Birth of Theseus—His Journey to Athens–Adventures in Crete- Import of the Legend - Minos–His maritime Dominion and Colonies Legend of his Dorian Origin examined—Grounds for rejecting it—Conjecture on the Legend of Minos - - - - - - - Confederacies among the Heroes—The Theban Wars, and the Calydonian Chase–Legend of the Argonautic Expedition - - - Religious Groundwork of the Legend—Its historical Groundwork - - - - - 1184 Jason and Medea—Story of the Trojan War How far Credible—Helen, a mythological Person —Connexion between the Trojan War and the Argonautic Expedition - - - Expedition of Hercules against Troy—Historical Wo: of the Trojan War—Consequences of the at . - - - - - - - Authority of the Homeric Poems with regard to historical Facts—With regard to the State of Society described in them - - -

Chapter Wi.

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THE Government, MANNERs, RELtgion, knowledge,

and arts of the Greeks in the heroic age.
I. Distinction of Classes in the Heroic Age—
Slaves—Freemen–Nobles—Kings . • *.
Prerogatives of the Heroic Kings—Limitations of
their Authority .
Their Domains and
Hereditary - - - - - - -
Institutious for preserving the public Peace—
Punishments—Dealings between independent
States—Approach towards national Unity
II. Mutual Relations of the Sexes-Female Char-

Vol. I.-D

57 58 59

acter. - - - - - Friendship-Hospitality-Amusements

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Cretan Syssilia–Education." . . . . 123

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arising to Sparta from the Conquest of Messenia

—Admission of new Citizens to Sparta-Rise of

a new Distinction among the Citizens of Sparta 143.

Enlargement of the Power of the Ephors—Com-
rison between the Ephors and the Roman
ibunes—Mode of Election and Authority of

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gins . - - - - - 152:

The Delphic Oracle—Olympic Festival - . 153

Presidence of the Olympic Games—Athletic Con-

tests—Nemean and Isthmian Games - ... 1


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odical Revision of the Laws . - - -

Simplicity of Solon's Institutions—Power of the

Tribunals–The Areopagus . - - -

Education of the Athenian Youth—Regulations
concerning Women—The Naucraries—The
Metics - - - - - - - -
Slavery at Athens-Solon again leaves Athens–
State of Parties - - - - - -
Pisistratus becomes Master of Athens—Character
of his Government—Solon's Death . - -
Expulsion and Restoration of Pisistratus—Person-
ation of Athene-Second Expulsion and Resto-
ration of Pisistratus. - - - - -
His foreign and domestic Policy—His Encourage-
inent of Art and Literature

527. He dies, and is succeeded

ment of the Pisistratids-

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togetton ... - - - - - - -
514 Murder of Hipparchus—Tyranny of Hippias—
Machinations of the Alcmaeonids . - -

510. The Spartans invade Attica–Hippias quits Attica

508 Institutions of Cleisthenes—His Expulsion and

Return-Spartan Invasion of Attica - . 194

Victories of the Athenians—Hippias at Sparta—

505 The Spartans baffled by their Allies - . 195

ress of Civilization—Milesian Colonies 203

650 Commerce of the Ionians—Opening of Intercourse

with Egypt - - - - - - -

Cultivation of the Arts-Architecture—Painting 205

Statuary - - - - - - . 206

Poetry-Hesiod . - - . 207

Epic Dialect—Cyclic Poets. . 208

Lyrical Poetry - - - - . 209

Origin of prose Composition—History . . 210

Philosophy–The lonian School . . 211

The Eleatic School . - - - - . 213

Philosophical Literature-Empedocles-Pythag-

or- . . . . . - - - . 214

B.C. Page

Pythagorean Philosophy—Institutions of Pythag-

. 215

His Pretensions—Pythagoras at Croton . 216.

Object of his Society—Religion of Pythagoras—

His political Views •. 217

Constitution of his Society—His Influence at Cro-

ton . - - - - . . . . .218

510 Parties at Sybaris-Destruction of Sybaris—Sup-

504 pression of the Pythagorean Society . 219

chapter xiii.

AFFAIRs of the Asiatic GREERs to THE YEAR B. c. 521.
Rise of the Lydian Monarchy—Irruption of the
700? Cimmerians—Gyges makes War upon the Ioni-
612 ans—Alyattes attacks Miletus . - -
560 Accession of Croesus—Cruesus subdues the Ioni-
ans—Prosperity of Craesus - - - -
The Medes and Persians—Cyrus dethrones Asty-

546 Mio War upon Croesus—Capture of Sardi—
Cyrus makes War on the Ionians - -
Heroism of the Phocaeans—And of the Teians—
The Persians subdue Asia Minor - -
529 Death of Cyrus—Condition of Egypt—Cambyses
525 invades Egypt . - - - - -
Enterprises of Cambyses—Polycrates . - -

522 Spartan Expedition to Samos-Death of Polycra-

tes . - - - - - - - -

521 Revolutions at the Court of Persia—Darius Hys-

taspis mounts the Throne - - - . 228

His Institutions—Their Defects . - - . 229

Persian Manners . - - - - - . 230


FROM THE Accession of darius hyst aspis. To the

BATTLE of Marathon.

Empire of Darius - - . 230

Democedes at Susa—Syloson . 23i

The Scythians . - - - - - . 23.2

513 Darius invades Scythia–Darius repasses the Dan-
ube . - - - - - - - -

Histianus—the Persians invade Paeonia—Macedo-

nia - - - - - - - - -

Tributary to Persia—Histiaeus carried to Susa . 235

501 Invasion of Naxos—Aristagoras excites the Ioni-

ans to revolt . - - - - - . 236

Aristagoras at Sparta—Athens seeks Protection
500 from Persia—Aristagoras at Athens - -
499 Burning of Sardis–Insurrection of Caria and Cy-
prus . - - - - - - - -

Intrigues of Histiaeus—The Ionians at Lade . 239

Dionysius the Phocaean–Defeat of the Ionians—

494 Capture of Miletus—Flight of Miltiades : 240.

492 Persian Regulations in Ionia—Expedition of Mar-

donius - - - - - - - -

Quarrel between Athens and Ægina–Demaratus

deposed—Death of Cleomenes . - - -

490 Factions of Ægina—Expedition of Datis and Ar-

taphernes–Siege of Carystus and Eretria . 243

Destruction of Eretria—The Persians at Mara-

thon-Preparations of the Athenians . 244

Miltiades - - - - - . 245

Battle of Marathon . . . 246

Miltiades attacks Paros - - . .247

His Death . - - - - - . 248

chapter xW.

FROM Trix Batti.e. or manathon to the eartle or


485 Preparations of Darius–Accession of Xerxes . 248

Onomacritus-Artabanus—Athos and the Helles-

pont . - - - - - - - . 249

480 March of Xerxes—Review of the Persian Army

—Nations which composed it . - - . 250

Persian Fleet—March of Xerxes through Thrace 251

Preparations of the Greeks—The Thessalians—

The Phocians—Boeotia and Argos . . 252.

Themistocles - - - - - - . 253

Aristides-Athenian Marine 254

Crete and Corcyra–Gelo . - - . 255

His Offers rejected—Arthmius of Telea . .256

The Greeks at Tempe—At Artemisium-Move-

ments of the Persian Fleet—Storm at Sepias . 257

Terror of the Greeks—Battles at Artemisium–

Wreck of the Persian Squadron at Coela . . 258.

Leonidas at Thermopylie . - - - . 259

Combat at Thermopyle—The Anopaea - . 260

The Spartans overpowered–Eurytus and Aristod-
emus - - - - - - - -

Advance of Xerxes—Persians at Delphi . 262:

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