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COWLEY, like other poets who have written with narrow views, and, instead of tracing intellectual pleasures in the minds of men, paid their court to temporary prejudices, has been at one time too much praised, and too much neglected at another.
Wit, like all other things, subject by their nature to the choice of man, has its changes and fashions, and at different times takes different forms. About the beginning of the seventeenth century, appeared a race of writers that may be termed the metaphysical poets.; of whom, in a criticism on the works of Cowley, it is not improper to give some account.
The metaphysical poets were men of learning, and to fhew their learning was their whole endeavour; but, unluckily resolving to shew it in rhyme, instead of writing poetry they only wrote verses, and very often such verses as stood the trial of the finger bet. ter than of the ear; for the modulation was soimperfect, that 'hey were only found to be verses by counting the syllables.
If the father of criticism had rightly denominated poetry réxern Merpentieri, an imitative art, these writers will, without great wrong, lose their right to the name of poets ; for they cannot be said to have imitated any thing; they neither copied nature for life; neither painted the forms of matter; nor represented the operations of intellect.
Those however who deny them to be poets, allow them to be wits. Dryden confesses of himself and his contemporaries, that they fall below Donne in wit; but maintains, that they surpass him in poetry.
If wit be well described by Pope, as being that 66 which has been often thought, but was never before « so well expressed," they certainly never attained, nor ever fought it; for they endeavoured to be singular in their thoughts, and were careless of their diction. But Pope's account of wit is undoubtedly erroneous : . he depresses it below its natural dignity, and reduces it from strength of thought to happiness of language.
if by a more noble and more adequate conception that be considered as wit which is at once natural and new, that which, though not obvious, is, upon its first production, acknowledged to be just; if it be that which he that never found it wonders how he milled ; to wit of this kind the metaphysical poets have seldom risen. Their thoughts are often new, but seldon natural; they are not obvious, but neither are they just; and the reader, far from wondering that he missed them, wonders more frequently by what perverseness of industry they were ever fouud..
But wit, abstracted from its effects upon the hearer, may be more rigorously and philosophically considered as a kind of discordia concors; a combination of dissimilar images, or discovery of occult resemblances in things apparently unlike. Of wit, thus defined, they have more than enough. The most heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence to. gether; nature and art are ransacked for illustrations, conparisons, and allufions; their learning instructs, and their subtility surprises ; but the reader commonly thinks his improvement dearly bought, and, • though he sometimes admires, is feldoın pleased.
From this account of their compositions it will be readily inferred, that they were not successful in representing or moving the affections. As they were wholly employed on something unexpected and surprising, they had no regard to that uniformity of sentiment which enables us to conceive and to excite the pains and the pleasure of other minds: they never enquired what, on any occasion, they should have said or done; but wrote rather as beholders than partakers of human nature; as Beings looking upon good and evil, impassive and at leisure; as Epicurean deities, making remarks on the actions of men, and the vicissitudes of life, without interest and without emotion. Their courtship was void of fondness, and their lamentation of sorrow. Their wish was only to say what they hoped had been never said before.
Nor was the sublime more within their reach than the pathetick; for they never attempted that com. prehension and expanse of thought which at once fills the whole mind, and of which the first effect is sudden astonishinent, and the second rational admiration. Sublimity is produced by aggregation, and littleness by dispersion. Great thoughts are always general, and consist in positions not limited by exceptions, and in descriptions not descending to minuteness. It is with great propriety that Subtlety, which in its original import means exility of particles, is taken in its metaphorical meaning for nicety of diftinction. Those writers who lie on the watch for novelty could have little hope of greatness ; for great things cannot have escaped former observation. Their attempts were always analytick; they broke every image into fragments; and could no more repre
sent, by their slender conceits and laboured particu. larities, the prospects of nature, or the scenes of life, than he, who diffects a run-beam with a prism, can exhibiż the wide effulgence of a summer noon.
What they wanted however of the sublime, they endeavoured to supply by hyperbole; their amplifi. cation had no limits; they left not only reason but fancy behind them; and produced combinations of confused magnificence, that not only could not be credited, but could not be imagined.
Yet great labour, directed by great abilities, is never wholly lost; if they frequently threw away their wit upon false conceits, they likewise sometimes struck out unexpected truth; if their conceits were far-fetched, they were often worth the carriage. To write on their plan it was at last necessary to read and think. No man could be born a metaphysical poet, nor assume the dignity of a writer, by descriptions copied from descriptions, by imitations borrowed from imitations, by traditional imagery, and heredi. tary similies, by readiness of shyme, and volubility of syllables.
In perusing the works of this race of authors, the mind is exercised either by recollection or inquiry : something already learned is to be retrieved, or something new is to be examined. If their greatness fel. dom elevates, their acuteness often surprises; if the imagination is not always gratified, at least the powers of reflexion and comparison are employed ; and in the mass of materials which ingenious absurdity has thrown together, genuine wit and useful knowledge may be sometimes found buried perhaps in groflness of expression, but useful to those who
know their value; and such as, when they are expanded to perspicuity, and polished to elegance, may give lustre to works which have more propriety though less copiousnels of sentiment.
This kind of writing, which was, I believe, borrowed from Marino and his followers, had been re. commended by the example of Donne, a man of very extensive and various knowledge; and by Jonson, whose manner resembled that of Donne more in the ruggedness of his lines than in the cast of his sentiments.
When their reputation was high, they had undoubtedly inore imitators than tiine has left behind. Their immediate successors, of whom any remem. brance can be said to remain, were Suckling, Wal. ler, Denham, Cowley, Cleiveland, and Milton. Denham and Waller sought another way to fame, by im. proving the harmony of our numbers. Milton tried the metaphysick style only in his lines on Hobíon the Carrier. Cowley adopted it, and excelled his predeceffors, having as much sentiment and more musick. Suckling neither improved versification, nor abounded in conceits. The fashionable style remained chiefly with Cowley; Suckling could not reach it, and Milton disdained it.
CRITICAL REMARKS are not easily understood with. out examples; and I have therefore collected in. stances of the modes of writing by which this species of poets (for poets they were called by themselves and their admirers) was eminently dilo tinguished.