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side, and the noes to the other; and appointing one of each to count and report the numbers, which is done in the same order as in the House (See ante p.130) except that the Teller's obeisance is only made twice in a Committée, whereas in the House it is three times. · In a Committee of the Whole no member may alter a Altering a Bill. a bill, even to correct a mistake, without the order or knowledge of the Committee (t). · If the Committee be broken up in disorder it is consid- Disorder. ered as thereby dissolved, and the subject must be brought anew before the House (v).
No previous question can be put in this (or any) Com- Adjournment. mittee; and, if they cannot perfect their business at one sitting, they may not adjourn, as other Committees, but a question must be made for reporting to the House, and for leave to be asked to sit again thereon. But if the matter has received a full debate, and it is judged fit to be considered in the House, the Speaker is called to the chair to receive the same. The Chairman must make the
Report. report, standing in his usual place, from whence he should go down to the bar and from thence bring up his report to the table. But if the House have not leisure to receive it at that time, there is a cry from the members of “to“morrow," or "on Monday,” &c. or a motion is made to that effect, and a question put that it be then received (w),
If the Committee, on considering the question before Committee may them, deem it inexpedient or objectionable, and not wor- reporting. thy to be brought before the House, a motion should be made that the Chairman do leave the chair; he then reports that the Committee have risen. The subject is then dropped for the session (2); unless subsequently revived by an order of the House, which may be done, the House not having actually negatived the question.
* (t) 1 Chand. 77.
(2) Scob. 38.
(v) 3 Grey, 130.
Grand Commit- Grand Committees are merely Committees of the
Whole under a more dignified name; they are used on subjects of great importance, or when a bill for imposing a public tax is to be committed; they have powers and instructions given them, in some cases, by the House, as " to send for witnesses,” “to hear or assign counsel,” &c. In other respects the rules of proceeding are the same as in the House.
See further incidentally, as to Committees of the whole in Chapters VII. and VIII. On Public and Private Bills.
COMMITTEES OF SUPPLY, AND OF WAYS AND MEANS. COMMITTEE OF Two Committees of the Whole, which are appointed by
the House of Commons at the commencement of every session,--the one for considering the quantum of the Supply granted to the Crown for the purposes of the state,
—the other to find out Ways and Means for raising that Supply.
The Committec of Supply is appointed, in compliance with a Standing Order of the 18th Feb. 1667 (y), to consider of the Supply granted to His Majesty, in general terms, by a former vote of the House. And as this Committee takes origin from the aids demanded by the Crown, it cannot properly have cognizance of any other matters except such as are laid before the House by the direction or recommendation of the Crown, (-) for the public service, and therefore if at any time it be desirable to vote a sum of money in this Committee which is not intended for the common aid so demanded, the House must, to entitle the Committee to take this matter into their consideration,
enable them to do so by particular instruction. The Applications for House have (it has been before shown (a),) likewise be recommended ordered “That they will receive no Petition for any sum
“ of money relating to the public service, but what is re
public money to
by the Crown,
(z) 3 Hats. 172.
(y) Soe Commons' Journals.
“commended from the Crown”* (6). And the uniform practice of the House has applied this order to all motions whatever for grants of money (c), whether the grounds of such application have been public or private, that they may not be troubled with Petitions or requests of a frivolous and vexatious nature. Upon this principle, before the House can give the Committec power to consider the providing for the pay and clothing of the Militia (which is done by an annual Act), some member of the House of Commons, authorised by the Crown, must acquaint the House that the King recommends the same to their consideration.
This Committee is appointed as follows:-at the com- Manner of apmencement of every session the Chancellor of the Exche- mittee of supply. quer, to whom the task of managing all matters of Supply in the House is generally, though not necessarily, intrusted-moves, that the House, on such a day, do resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole to take into consideration that part of the Speech from the Throne which relates to Supply. In the Committee, that part of the proceedin Royal Speech relating to the estimates is read, with the therein. former motion agreed to by the House, and the quantum of Supply is then moved and considered. When the Resolutions of Supply are reported to the House, and Report. agreed to, they are then referred to the Committee of Ways and Means to consider the proper modes of raising the intended grant.
When a Committee drops, from neglect of the Chairman Committee in not asking leave to sit again, or from an adjournment,“ or from want of a quorum, or from the order of the day for the Committee being omitted to be read and disposed of (d)—it may be revived by a Special order (e). But when the Committee of Supply has closed, without direc(6) C. J. 11 June, 1713.
(C) 3 Hats. 174. (d) C. J. 22 Jan. 1717.
(e) C. J. 14 March, 1743. * See Appendix XXII. Form of Memorial to the Treasury for the consent of
COMMITTEE OF WAYS & MEANS.
tion to the Chairman to ask leave to sit again, and it is afterwards found necessary to vote a further sum of money, the same forms and proceedings must be observed as at the commencement of a session if ).
Committee of Ways and Means. COMMITTEE OF The object of this Committee is to find out modes of
raising the supplies granted to the Crown, reported and agreed to by the House from the Committee of Supply, and the first consideration to be observed is, that the money proposed to be raised by loan, taxes, &c. upon the subject, should not exceed the sum granted in the Committee of Supply. It is therefore incumbent on the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or whatever member proposes the Ways and Means, to explain and show to the House, by detail, that the amount of those sums will be a sufficient justification, in point of quantity, to the Committee of Ways and Means to adopt such measures, and impose such taxes, as shall be then recommended to them. And this proceeding should be strictly adhered to, that the people may see that the burthens imposed upon them are not greater than
the public exigencies require. Not to consider The Committee of Ways and Means being specially ap
pointed by the House to consider such propositions as may raise the supply for the current year, cannot properly take any other matter into consideration, without special instructions for that purpose. And, therefore, when it is found necessary to impose taxes, or levy duties, which are not to be applied to the service of the current year, this, if done in this Committee at all (for it may be done with greater propriety in any other Committee of the Whole, appointed for the purpose (g),) must be by special authority from the House (h).
· When the Committees of Supply and of Ways and Means Appropriation have closed, the House of Commons pass a bill, in which the several grants that have been made in the latter Cominiitee, by land tax, malt tax, loan, &c. are recapitulated and directed to be applied to those several services for which they have been voted, and appropriating the mon- . ey that shall be paid into the Exchequer for their discharge, and directing that the said supplies shall not be applied to any other purposes than those mentioned in the Act. See further Chap. IX. On Money Bills. · There has usually been a debt contracted by each Ser- Extraordinary vice in consequence of extraordinary expenses not provided for in the Supply bill, which was formerly brought before Parliament in a subsequent session, as extraordinaries incurred and not provided for, but in consequence of a protest of the Lords (i) against this proceeding, a Vote of Credit vote of Credit. is now passed, every session, which, though it gives the ministers credit for the manner of disposing of the money so voted, yet confines that credit to a precise sum. The most regular mode of proceeding in this case appears to be, to vote this Supply of Credit in the Committee of Supply, and to come to a resolution in the Committee of Ways and Means that a sum to that amount be raised by loans or Exchequer bills, to be charged on the next aids granted by Parliament. See further Chap. IX. On Money Bills. SELECT COMMITTEES.*
SELECT COMA Select Committee of the House of Lords has a right of to be attended by any of the judges or learned counsel that may be appointed, who must stand uncovered, except through infirmity they have leave given them to sit. At Lords' Committees any member may come in and speak, but none may vote except they have been named thereon (k). (i) L. J. 11 April, 1734.
(k) S.O. H. of L. xxxii, xxxiii. * For forms of motions for the appointment of Select Committees, see sppendix XXIII.