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(b) SECURITY.—The President may, in advance, exempt any specific action of the Commission in a particular matter from the provisions of law relating to contracts whenever he determines that such action is essential in the interest of the common defense and security.

(c) ADVISORY COMMITTEES.—The members of the General Advisory Committee established pursuant to section 2 (b) and the members of advisory boards established pursuant to subsection (a) (1) of this section may serve as such without regard to the provisions of sections 109 and 113 of the Criminal Code (18 U. S. C., secs. 198 and 203) or section 19 (e) of the Contract Settlement Act of 1944, except insofar as such sections may prohibit any such member from receiving compensation in respect of any particular matter which directly involves the Commission or in which the Commission is directly interested.

COMPENSATION FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY ACQUIRED

SEC. 13. (a). The United States shall make just compensation for any property or interests therein taken or requisitioned pursuant to sections 5 and 11. The Commission shall determine such compensation. If the compensation so determined is unsatisfactory to the person entitled thereto, such person shall be paid 50 per centum of the amount so determined, and shall be entitled to sue the United States in the Court of Claims or in any district court of the United States in the manner provided by sections 24 (20) and 145 of the Judicial Code to recover such further sum as added to said 50 per centum will make up such amount as will be just compensation.

(b) In the exercise of the rights of eminent domain and condemnation, proceedings may be instituted under the Act of August 1, 1888 (U. S. C., title 40, sec. 257), or any other applicable Federal statute. Upon or after the filing of the condemnation petition, immediato possession may be taken and the property may be occupied, used, and improved for the purposes of this Act, notwithstanding any other law. Real property acquired by, purchase, donation, or other means of transfer may also be occupied, used, and improved for the purposes of this Act, prior to approval of title by the Attorney General. JUDICIAL REVIEW AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

SEC. 14. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12 of the Administrative Procedure Act (Public Law 404, Seventy-ninth Congress, approved June 11, 1946) which provide when such Act shall take effect, section 10 of such Act (relating to judicial review) shall be applicable, upon the enactment of this Act, to any agency action under the authority of this Act or by any agency created by or under the provisions of this Act.

(6) Except as provided in subsection (a), no provision of this Act shall be held to supersede or modify the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act.

(c) As used in this section the terms "agency action" and "agency” shall have the same meaning as is assigned to such terms in the Administrative Procedure Act.

JOINT COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC ENERGY SEC. 15. (a) There is hereby established a Joint Committee on Atomic Energy to be composed of nine Members of the Senate to be

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appointed by the President of the Senate, and nine Members of the House of Representatives to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives. In each instance not more than five members shall be members of the same political party.

(b) The joint committee shall make continuing studies of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission and of problems relating to the development, use, and control of atomic energy. The Commission shall keep the joint committee fully and currently informed with respect to the Commission's activities. All bills, resolutions, and other matters in the Senate or the House of Representatives relating primarily to the Commission or to the development, use, or control of atomic energy shall be referred to the joint committee. The members of the joint committee who are Members of the Senate shall from time to time report to the Senate, and the members of the joint committee who are Members of the House of Representatives shall from time to time report to the House, by bill or otherwise, their recommendations with respect to matters within the jurisdiction of their respective Houses which are (1) referred to the joint committee or (2) otherwise within the jurisdiction of the joint committee.

(c) Vacancies in the membership of the joint committee shall not affect the power of the remaining members to execute the functions of the joint committee, and shall be filled in the same manner as in the case of the original selection. The joint committee shall select a chairman and a vice chairman from among its members.

(d) The joint committee, or any duly authorized subcommittee thereof, is authorized to hold such hearings, to sit and act at such places and times, to require, by subpena or otherwise, the attendance of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, to administer such oaths, to take such testimony, to procure such printing and binding, and to make such expenditures as it deems advisable. The cost of stenographic services to report such hearings shall not be in excess of 25 cents per hundred words. The provisions of sections 102 to 104, inclusive, of the Revised Statutes shall apply in case of any failure of any witness to comply with a subpena or to testify when summoned under authority of this section.

(e) The joint committee is empowered to appoint and fix the compensation of such experts, consultants, technicians, and clerical and stenographic assistants as it deems necessary and advisable, but the compensation so fixed shall not exceed the compensation prescribed under the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, for comparable duties. The committee is authorized to utilize the services, information, facilities, and personnel of the departments and establishments of the Government.

ENFORCEMENT SEC. 16. (a) Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate, any provision of sections 4.(b), 4 (e), 5 (a) (3), or 6 (b) shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, except that whoever commits such an offense with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by death or imprisonment for life (but the penalty of death or imprisonment for life may be imposed only upon recommendation of the jury and only in cases where the offense was committed with intent to injure the United States); or by a fine of not more than $20,000 or by imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

(b) Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate, any provision of this Act other than those specified in subsection (a) and other than section 10 (b), or of any regulation or order prescribed or issued under sections 5 (b) (4), 10°c), or 12 (a) (2), shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, except that whoever commits such an offense with intent tó injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $20,000 or by imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

(c) Whenever in the judgment of the Commission any person has engaged or is about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of any provision of this Act, or any regulation or order issued thereunder, it may make application to the appropriate court for an order enjoining such acts or practices, or for an order enforcing compliance with such provision, and upon a showing by the Commission that such person has engaged or is about to engage in any such acts or practices a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order may be granted.

(d) In case of failure of refusal tu obey a subpena served upon any person pursuant to section 12 (a) (3), the district court for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the Commission, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony or to appear and produce documents, or both, in accordance with the subpena; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

REPORTS Seo. 17. The Commission shall submit to the Congress, in January and July of each year, a report concerning the activities of the Commission. The Commission shall include in such report, and shall at such other times as it deems desirable submit to the Congress, such recommendations for additional legislation as the Commission deems necessary or desirable.

DEFINITIONS SEC. 18. As used in this Act(a) The term "atomic energy” shall be construed to mean all forms of energy released in the course of or as a result of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.

(b) The term “Government agency” means any executive department, commission, independent establishment, corporation wholly or partly owned by the United States which is an instrumentality of the United States, board, bureau, division, service, office, officer, authority, administration, or other establishment, in the executive branch of the Government.

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(c) The term “person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, the United States or any agency thereof, any government other than the United States, any political subdivision of any such government, and any legal successor, representative, agent, or agency of the foregoing, or other entity, but shall not include the Commission or officers or employees of the Commission in the exercise of duly authorized functions.

(d) The term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, includes all Territories and possessions of the United States and the Canal Zone.

) (e) The term “research and development” means theoretical analysis, exploration, and experimentation, and the extension of investigative findings and theories of a scientific or technical nature into practical application for experimental and demonstration purposes, including the experimental production and testing of models, devices, equipment, materials, and processes.

(f) The term "equipment or device utilizing fissionable material or atomic energy” shall be construed to mean any equipment or device capable of making use of fissionable material or peculiarly adapted for making use of atomic energy and any important component part especially designed for such equipment or devices, as determined by the Commission.

(s) The term “facilities for the production of fissionable material” shall be construed to mean any equipment or device capable of such production and any important component part especially designed for such equipment or devices, as determined by the Commission.

APPROPRIATIONS Sec. 19. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary and appropriate to carry out the provisions and purposes of this Act. The Acts appropriating such sums may appropriate specified portions thereof to be accounted for upon the certification of the Commission only. Funds appropriated to the Commission shall, if obligated by contract during the fiscal year for which appropriated, remain available for expenditure for four years following the expiration of the fiscal year for which appropriated. After such four-year period, the unexpended balances of appropriations shall be carried to the surplus fund and covered into the Treasury.

SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS SEC. 20. If any provision of this Act, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby.

SHORT TITLE Sec. 21. This Act may be cited as the "Atomic Energy Act of 1946". Approved August 1, 1946.

(PUBLIC LAW 898—80TH CONGRESS)
[CHAPTER 828—2D SESSION)

(H. R. 6402]

AN ACT To provide for extension of the terms of office of the present members on the

Atomic Energy Commission. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section 2 (a) (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 is amended to read as follows:

(2) Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. In submitting any nomination to the Senate, the President shall set forth the experience and the qualifications of the nominee. The term of office of each member of the Commission taking office prior to June 30, 1950, shall expire at midnight on June 30, 1950. The term of office of each member of the Commission taking office after June 30, 1950, shall be five years, except that (A) the terms of office of the members first taking office after June 30, 1950, shall expire, as designated by the President at the time of the appointment, one at the end of one year, one at the end of two years, one at the end of three years, one at the end of four years, and one at the end of five years, after June 30, 1950; and (B) any member appointed to fill a vacancy, occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, shall be appointed for the remainder of such term. Any member of the Commission may be removed by the President for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office. Each member, except the Chairman, shall receive compensation at the rate of $15,000 per annum; and the Chairman shall receive compensation at the rate of $17,500 per annum. No member of the Commission shall engage in any other business, vocation, or employment than that of serving as a member of the Commission."

Approved July 3, 1948.

(23)

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