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It being desirable that no time should be unnecessarily lost in commencing and constructing the said Canal, the Governments of the United States and Great Britain determine to give their support and encouragement to such persons, or company, as may first offer to commence the same, with the necessary capital, the consent of the local authorities, and on such principles as accord with the spirit and intention of this Convention; and if any persons, or company, should already have, with any State through which the proposed ShipCanal may pass, a contract for the construction of such a canal as that specified in this Convention,—to the stipulations of which contract neither of the contracting parties in this convention have any just cause to object,—and the said persons, or company, shall moreover, have made preparations and expended time, money, and trouble on the faith of such contract, it is hereby agreed that such persons, or company, shall have a priority of claim over every other person, persons, or company to the protection of the Governments of the United States and Great Britain, and be allowed a year, from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this Convention for concluding their arrangements, and presenting evidence of sufficient capital subscribed to accomplish the contemplate undertaking; it being understood, that if, at the expiration of the aforesaid period, such persons, or company be not able to commence and carry out the proposed enterprise, then the Governments of the United States and Great Britain shall be free to afford their protection to any other persons, or company, that shall be prepared to commence and proceed with the construction of the Canal in question.
ARTICLE VIII. The Governments of the United States and Great Britain having not only desired in entering into this Convention, to accomplish a particular object, but, also, to establish a general principle, they hereby agree to extend their protection, by Treaty stipulations, to any other practicable communications, whether by Canal or rail-way, across the Isthmus which connects North and South America; and, especially to the inter-oceanic communications,-should the same prove to be practicable, whether by Canal or rail-way,—which are now proposed to be established by the way of Tehuantepec, or Panama. In granting, however, their joint protection to any such Canals or rail-ways, as are by this Article specified, it is always understood by the United States and Great Britain, that the parties constructing or owning the same, shall impose no other charges or conditions of traffic thereupon, than the aforesaid Governments shall approve of, as just and equitable; and, that the same Canals or rail-ways, being open to the citizens and subjects of the United States and Great Britain on equal terms, shall, also, be open on like terms to the citizens and subjects of every other State which is willing to grant thereto, such protection as the United States and Great Britain engage to afford.
The ratifications of this Convention shall be exchanged at Washington, within six months from this day, or sooner, if possible.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this Con. vention, and have hereunto affixed our Seals.
Done, at Washington, the nineteenth day of April, Anno Domini one thousand eight hundred and fifty.
JOHN M. CLAYTON. (SEAL.)
Treaty between the United States and Great Britain to facilitate the construc
tion of a ship canal. Signed at Washington, November 18, 1901 ; ratification advised by the Senate, December 16, 1901; ratified by the President, December 26, 1901 ; ratified by Great Britain, January 20, 1902; ratifications exchanged at Washington, February 21, 1902; proclaimed, February 22, 1902. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
A PROCLAMATION. Whereas, a Convention between the United States of America and the United Kingilom of Great Britain and Ireland, to facilitate the construction of a ship canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by whatever route may be con
sidered expedient, and to that end to remove any objection which may arise out of the Convention of the 19th April, 1850, commonly called the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, to the construction of such canal under the auspices of the Government of the United States, without impairing the “ general principle" of neutralization established in Article VIII of that Convention, was concluded and signell by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington on the 18th day of November, 1901, the original of which Convention is word for word as follows:
The United States of America and His Majesty Edward the Seventh, of the United Kingilom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, and Emperor of India, being desirous to facilitate the construction of a ship canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by whatever route may be considered expedient, and to that end to remove any objection which may arise out of the Convention of the 19th April, 1850, commonly called the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, to the construction of such canal under the auspices of the Government of the United States, without impairing the “ general principle” of neutralization established in Article VIII of that Convention, have for that purpose appointed as their Plenipotentiaries :
The President of the United States, John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States of America;
And His Majesty Edward the Seventh, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, and Emperor of India, the Right Honourable Lord Pauncefote, G. C. B., G. C. M. G., His Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States;
Who, having communicated to each other their full powers which were found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon the following Articles :
The High Contracting Parties agree that the present Treaty shall supersede the afore-mentioned Convention of the 19th April, 1850.
It is agreed that the canal may be constructed under the auspices of the Government of the United States, either directly at is own cost, or by gift or loan of money to individuals or Corporations, or through subscription to or purchase of stock or shares, and that, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty, the said Government shall have and enjoy all the rights incident to such construction, as well as the exclusive right of providing for the regulation and management of the canal.
The United States adopts, as the basis of the neutralization of such ship canal, the following Rules, substantially as embodied in the Convention of Constantinople, signed the 28th October, 1888, for the free navigation of the Suez Canal, that is to say:
1. The canal shall be free and open to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations observing these Rules, on terms of entire equality, so that there shall be no discrimination against any such nation, or its citizens or subjects, in respect of the conditions or charges of traffic, or otherwise. Such conditions and charges of traffic shall be just and equitable.
2. The canal shall never be blockaded, nor shall any right of war be exercised nor any act of hostility be committed within it. The United States, however, shall be at liberty to maintain such military police along the canal as may be necessary to protect it against lawlessness and disorder.
3. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not revictual nor take any stores in the canal except so far as may be strictly necessary; and the transit of such vessels through the canal shall be effected with the least possible delay in, accordance with the Regulations in force, and with only such intermission as may result from the necessities of the service.
Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same Rules as vessels of war of the belligerents.
4. No belligerent shall embark or disembark troops, munitions of war, or warlike materials in the canal, except in case of accidental hindrance of the transit, and in such case the transit shall be resumed with all possible dispatch.
5. The provisions of this article shall apply to waters adjacent to the canal, within 3 marine miles of either end. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not remain in such waters longer than twenty-four hours at any one time, except ir. case of distress, and in such case, shall depart as soon as possible; but a vessel of war of one belligerent shall not depart within twenty-four hours. from the departure of a vessel of war of the other belligerent.
6. The plant, establishments, buildings, and all works necessary to the construction, maintenance, and operation of the canal shall be deemed to be part thereuf, for the purposes of this Treaty, and in time of war, as in time of peace, shall enjoy complete immunity from attack or injury by belligerents, and from acts calculated to impair their usefulness as part of the canal.
It is agreed that no change of territorial sovereignty or of the international relations of the country or countries traversed by the before-mentioned canal shall affect the general principle of neutralization or the obligation of the High Contracting Parties under the present Treaty.
The present Treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by His Britannic Majesty ; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington or at London at the earliest possible time within six months from the date hereof.
In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty and thereunto affixed their seals.
Done in duplicate at Washington, the 18th day of November, in the year of Our Lord one thousand nipe hundred and one.
JOHN HAY. (SEAL.]
And whereas the said Convention has been duly ratified on both parts, and the ratification of the two Governments were exchanged in the city of Washington on the twenty-first day of February, one thousand nine hundred and two;
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Convention to be inade public, to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington, this twenty-second day of February, in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine hundrel and two, and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and twenty-sixth. (SEAL.)
THEODORE ROOSEVELT. By the President: JOHN HAY,
Secretary of State.
Convention between the United States and the Republic of Panama for the construction
of a Ship Canal to connect the waters of the Atlantic and Pacifc Oceans.
RETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA FOR THE CONSTRUC
TION OF A SHIP CANAL TO CONNECT THE WATERS OF THE ATLANTIC AND PACIFIC OCEANS,
Signed at Washington, November 18, 1903.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Whereas, a Convention between the United States of America and the Republic of Panama to insure the construction of a ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, was concluded and signed by their respective Plenipotentiaries at Washington, on the eighteenth day of November, one thousand nine hunólred and three, the original of which Convention, being in the English language, is word for word as follows:
ISTHMIAN CANAL CONVENTION.
The United States of America and the Republic of Panama being desirous to insure the construction of a ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Congress of the United States of America having passed an act approved June 28, 1902, in furtherance of that object, by which the President of the United States is authorized to acquire within a reasonable time the control of the necessary territory of the Republic of Colombia, and the sovereignty of such territory being actually vesteel in the Republic of Panama, the high contracting parties have resolved for that purpose to conclude a convention and have accordingly appointed as their plenipotentiaries,
The President of the United States of America, John Hay, Secretary of State, and
The Government of the Republic of Panama, Philippe Bunau-Varilla, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Panama, thereunto specially empowered by said government, who after communicating with each other their respective full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles :
The United States guarantees and will maintain the independence of the Republic of Panama.
The Republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation and control of a zone of land and land under water for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of said canal of the width of ten miles extending to the distance of five miles on each side of the center line of the route of the canal to be constructed; the said zone beginning in the Caribbean Sea three marine miles from mean low water mark and extending to and across the Isthmus of Panama into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of three marine miles from mean low water inark with the proviso that the cities of Panama and Colon and the harbors adjacent to said cities, which are includerl within the boundaries of the zone above described, shall not be includeil within this grant. The Republic of Panama further grants to the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation and control of any other lands and waters outside of the zone above described which may be necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of the said Canal or of any auxiliary canals or other works necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of said enterprise.
The Republic of Panama further grants in like manner to the Uniteil States in perpetuity all islands within the limits of the zone above clescribed and in addition thereto the group of small islands in the Bay of Panama, named Perico, Naos, Culebra and Flamenco.
The Republic of Panama grants to the United States all the rights, power and authority within the zone mentioned and described in Article II of this agreement and within the limits of all auxiliary lands and waters mentioned and described in said Article II which the United States woulil possess anul exercise if it were the sovereign of the territory within which said lands and waters are located to the entire extilusion of the exercise by the Republic of Panama of any such sovereign rights, power or authority.
As rights subsidiary to the above grants the Republic of Panama grants in perpetuity to the United States the right to use the rivers, streams, lakes and other bodies of water within its limits for navigation, the supply of water or water-power or other purposes, so far as the use of said rivers, streams, lakes and bodies of water and the waters thereof may be necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of the said Canal.
The Republic of Panama grants to the United States in perpetuity a monopoly for the construction, inaintenance and operation of any system of coinmunication by means of canal or railroad across its territory between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean.
The grants herein contained shall in no manner invalidate the titles or rights of private land holders or owners of private property in the said zone or in or to any of the lands or waters granted to the United States by the provisions of any Article of this treaty, nor shall they interfere with the rights of way over the public roads passing through the said zone or over any of the said lands or waters unless said rights of way or private rights shall conflict with rights herein granted to the United States in which case the rights of the United States shall be superior. All damages caused to the owners of private lands or private property of any kind by reason of the grants contained in this treaty or by reason of the operations of the United States, its agents or employees, or by reason of the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of the said Canal or of the works of sanitation and protection herein provided for, shall be appraised and settled by a joint Commission appointed by the Gov. ernments of the United States and the Republic of Panama, whose decisions as te such damages shall be final and whose awards as to such damages shall be paid solely by the United States. No part of the work on said Canal or the Panama Railroad or on any auxiliary works relating thereto and authorized by the terms of this treaty shall be prevented, delayed or impeiled by or pending such proceedings to ascertain such damages. The appraisal of said private lands and private property and the assessment of damages to them shall be based upon their value before the date of this convention.
The Republic of Panama grants to the United States within the limits of the cities of Panama and Colon and their adjacent harbors and within the territory adjacent thereto the right to acquire by purchase or by the exercise of the right of eminent domain, any lands, buildings, water rights or other properties necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation and protection of the Canal and of any works of sanitation, such as the collection and disposition of sewage and the distribution of water in the said cities of Panama and Colon, which, in the discretion of the United States may be necessary and convenient for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of the said Canal and railroad. All such works of sanitation, collection and disposition of sewage and distribution of water in the cities of Panama and Colon shall be made at the expense of the United States, and the Government of the United States, its agents or nominees shall be authorized to impose and collect water rates and sewerage rates which shall be sufficient to provide for the payment of interest and the amortization of the principal of the cost of said works within a period of fifty years and upon the expiration of said term of fifty years the system of sewers and water works shall revert to and become the properties of the cities of Panama and Colon respectively, and the use of the water shall be free to the inhabitants of Panama and Colon, except to the extent that water rates may be necessary for the operation and maintenance of said system of sewers and water.
The Republic of Panama agrees that the cities of Panama and Colon shall comply in perpetuity with the sanitary ordinances whether of a preventive or curative character prescribed by the United States and in case the Government of Panama is unable or fails in its duty to enforce this compliance by the