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up on the part of the United States against any plaintiff making claim against the United States in said court, the court shall hear and determine such claim or demand both for and against the United States and plaintiff.
If upon the whole case it finds that the plaintiff is indebted to the United States it shall render judgment to that effect, and such judgment shall be final and reviewable.
The transcript of such judgment, filed in the clerk's office of any district court, shall be entered upon the records and shall be enforceable as other judgments. As amended July 28, 1953, c. 253, § 10, 67 Stat. 227; Sept. 3, 1954, c. 1263, § 47(a), 68 Stat. 1243.
Section 2509. Congressional reference cases.
Whenever any bill, except for a pension, is referred to the Court of Claims by either House of Congress, such court shall proceed with the same in accordance with its rules and report to such House, the facts in the case, including facts relating to delay or laches, facts bearing upon the question whether the bar of any statute of limitation should be removed, or facts claimed to excuse the claimant for not having resorted to any established legal remedy.
The court shall also report conclusions sufficient to inform Congress whether the demand is a legal or equitable claim or a gratuity, and the amount, if any, legally or equitably due from the United States to the claimant. June 25, 1948, c. 646, 62 Stat. 977. Section 2510. Referral of cases by Comptroller General.
The Comptroller General may transmit to the Court of Claims for trial and adjudication any claim or matter of which the Court of Claims might take jurisdiction on the voluntary action of the claimant, together with all vouchers, papers, documents, and proofs pertaining thereto.
The Court of Claims shall proceed with the claims or matters so referred as in other cases pending in such court and shall render judgment thereon. As amended July 28, 1953, c. 253, § 11, 67 Stat. 227; Sept. 3, 1954, c. 1263, § 47(b), 68 Stat. 1243.
Section 2511. Accounts of officers, agents or contractors.
Notice of suit under section 1494 of this title shall be given to the Attorney General, to the Comptroller General, and to the head of the department requested to settle the account in question.
The judgment of the Court of Claims in such suit, or of the Supreme Court upon review, shall be conclusive upon the parties, and payment of the amount found due shall discharge the obligation.
The transcript of such judgment, filed in the clerk's office of any district court, shall be entered upon the records, and shall be enforceable as other judgments. As amended July 28, 1953, c. 253, § 12, 67 Stat. 227.
Forfeiture of fraudulent claims.
A claim against the United States shall be forfeited to the United States by any person who corruptly practices or attempts to practice any fraud against the United States in the proof, statement, establishment, or allowance thereof.
In such cases the Court of Claims shall specifically find such fraud or attempt and render judgment of forfeiture. (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 978.)
Section 2516. Interest on claims and judgments.
(a) Interest on a claim against the United States shall be allowed in a judgment of the Court of Claims only under a contract or Act of Congress expressly providing for payment thereof.
(b) Interest on judgments against the United States affirmed by the Supreme Court after review on petition of the United States shall be paid at the rate of four per cent per annum from the date of the filing of the transcript of the judgment in the Treasury Department to the date of the mandate of affirmance. Such interest shall not be allowed for any period after the term of the Supreme Court at which the judgment was affirmed. As amended Sept. 3, 1954, c. 1263, § 57, 68 Stat. 1248.
Section 2517. Payment of judgments.
(a) Every final judgment rendered by the Court of Claims against the United States shall be paid out of any general appropriation therefor, on presentation to the General Accounting Office of a certification of the judgment by the clerk and chief judge of the court.
(b) Payment of any such judgment and of interest thereon shall be a full discharge to the United States of all claims and demands arising out of the matters involved in the case or controversy. June 25, 1948, c. 646, 62 Stat. 979.
Certification of judgments for appropriation.
The Secretary of the Treasury shall certify to Congress for appropriation only such judgments of the Court of Claims as are not to be reviewed or entered upon mandate of the Supreme Court. June 25, 1948, c. 646, 62 Stat. 979.
Section 2519. Conclusiveness of judgment.
A final judgment of the Court of Claims against any plaintiff shall forever bar any further claim, suit, or demand against the United States arising out of the matters involved in the case or controversy. June 25, 1948, c. 646, 62 Stat. 979.
PART XII, TITLE 29
CHAPTER 8.-FAIR LABOR STANDARDS
Section 202. Congressional finding and declaration of policy. (a) The Congress finds that the existence, in industries engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, of labor conditions detrimental to the maintenance of the minimum standard of living necessary for health, efficiency, and general well-being of workers (1) causes commerce and the channels and instrumentalities of commerce to be used to spread and perpetuate such labor conditions among the workers of the several states; (2) burdens commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce; (3) constitutes an unfair method of competition in commerce; (4) leads to labor disputes burdening and obstructing commerce and the free flow of goods in commerce; and (5) interferes with the orderly and fair marketing of goods in commerce.
(b) It is declared to be the policy of this chapter, through the exercise by Congress of its power to regulate commerce among the several States and with foreign nations, to correct and as rapidly as practicable to eliminate the conditions above referred to in such industries without substantially curtailing employment or earning power.
(a) "Person" means an individual, partnership, association, corporation, business trust, legal representative, or any organized group of persons.
(b) "Commerce" means trade, commerce, transportation, transmission, or communication among the several States or between any State and any place outside thereof.
(c) "State" means any State of the United States or the District of Columbia or any Territory or possession of the United States.
(d) "Employer" includes any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State, or any labor organization (other than when acting as an employer), or anyone acting in the capacity of officer or agent of such labor organization.
(e) "Employee" includes any individual employed by an employer.
(f) "Agriculture" includes farming in all its branches and among other things includes the cultivation and tillage of the soil, dairying, the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of