« PreviousContinue »
PART VII-GENERAL PROVISIONS SECTION 701. The Civil Service Commission is authorized and directed, in addition to responsibilities assigned elsewhere in this order:
(a) To issue appropriate regulations and instructions implementing Parts II, III, and IV of this order;
(b) To review agency regulations from time to time for conformance with this order; and
(c) To recommend to the President from time to time such revisions in this order as may appear necessary to ensure the maintenance of high ethical standards within the Executive Branch.
Sec. 702. Each agency head is hereby directed to supplement the standards provided by law, by this order, and by regulations of the Civil Service Commission with regulations of special applicability to the particular functions and activities of his agency. Each agency head is also directed to assure (1) the widest possible distribution of regulations issued pursuant to this section, and (2) the availability of counseling for those employees who request advice or interpretation.
Sec. 703. The following are hereby revoked:
(d) White House memorandum of July 20, 1961, on "Standards of Conduct for Civilian Employees."
(e) The President's Memorandum of May 2, 1963, “Preventing Conflicts of Interest on the Part of Special Government Employees.” The effective date of this revocation shall be the date of issuance by the Civil Service Commission of regulations under Section 701(a) of this order.
Sec. 704. All actions heretofore taken by the President or by his delegates in respect of the matters affected by this order and in force at the time of the issuance of this order, including any regulations prescribed or approved by the President or by his delegates in respect of such matters, shall, except as they may be inconsistent with the provisions of this order or terminate by operation of law, remain in effect until amended, modified, or revoked pursuant to the authority conferred by this order.
Sec. 705. As used in this order, and except as otherwise specifically provided herein, the term "agency” means any executive department, or any independent agency or any Government corporation; and the term "employee” means any officer or employee of an agency.
LYNDON B. JOHNSON THE WHITE HOUSE,
May 8, 1965.
United States of America
Office of Government Ethics
Office of Personnel Management
July 9, 1982
SUBJECT: Members of Federal Advisory Committees and the Conflict-of-Interest
Heads of Departments and Agencies of the Executive Branch
The purpose of this memorandum is to discuss the applicability of the conflict-ofinterest statutes, 18 U.S.C. S S 202-209, to persons not regularly employed in the Federal Government who accept appointments as members of an advisory Committee, board, commission or the like established in a department or agency of the Executive Branch (hereafter "advisory committee" or "committee"). We have been moved to this task both by uncertainties voiced to us concerning this subject and by an occasional flat assertion that advisory committee members, without exception, are outside the coverage of Ss 202-209.
We believe it will be helpful to the departments and agencies and committee members (1) to identify the factors relevant to a determination under existing authority whether or not the persons who are members of a given committee are bound by provisions of the conflict-of-interest laws and (2) by way of illustration, to apply the factors to the memberships of a number of committees now or formerly in existence.
Sections 202-209 of Title 18, United States Code, were enacted in 1962 by Public Law 87-849, 76 Stat. 119, to replace similar laws that had in many ways become outmoded. Those laws in general had been read both in Congress and the Executive Branch to cover persons not otherwise employed by the Government who performed services for it on a temporary or intermittent basis, either singly or as members of
advisory committees. Moreover, they were read to apply to such individuals with the same force and scope as they applied to full-time employees, 2 As a result a highly qualified person who was a partner in, or employed by, an enterprise that had dealings with the Government often could not be recruited by an agency for occasional service because it could not assure him that he or the enterprise would be free of restrictions that were unreasonable in the light of his projected duties.3
Although Congress had provided relief for a number of agencies by granting to members of their statutorily created advisory committees limited exemptions from the conflict-of-interest laws, 4 those laws before 1963 by and large remained an appreciable deterrent to the Government's obtaining needed part-time services. One of the main purposes of the new legislation was to facilitate the recruitment of experts for part-time assistance "without relaxing basic ethical standards or permitting actual conflicts of interest."5 Congress achieved this purpose by creating in 18 U.S.C. S 202(a) the category of "special Government employees" (SGE's), which includes most individuals who serve less than full-time. Section 202(a) in general defines an SGE as an officer or employee of the Government who is appointed or employed to serve it, with or without compensation, for not more than 130 days during any period of 365 consecutive days either full-time or intermittently.6 SGE's are treated less restrictively in 18 U.S.C. S S 203, 205 and 209 than are regular employees, but not in S S 207 and 208.
1 There is no substantive difference between an appointee providing advisory service individually and one doing so as a member of a committee. Advisory' groups are formed by departments and agencies to carry out collegially the same functions as experts perform working singly. Cf. H. Rept. 2894, 84th Cong., 2d Sess. 5 (1956).
2 See 42 Op. A.G. 1, at 12, 115 (1962). See also United States v. Mississippi Valley Generating Co., 364 U.S. 520, 552 (1961), where the Supreme Court held that an intermittent consultant to the Bureau of the Budget (a precursor of the Office of Management and Budget) who took no oath of office, had no tenure and received no salary was an "officer or agent" of the United States within the compass of 18 U.S.C. S 434, the statute replaced in 1962 by 18 U.S.C. S 208.
3 For example, 18 U.S.C. S 281, the antecedent of the current 18 U.S.C. S 203, was in general construed to prevent a privately employed person who served an agency as an intermittent consultant or adviser, or as a member of an advisory committee, from representing his private employer before any federal agency regardless of the subject matter involved. See 42 Op. A.G. W at 121–124.
See, for example, 42 U.S.C. S 1314(h), 42 U.S.C. S 2203 and 50 U.S.C. App. S
6 Procedures and rules for the designation of SGE's by the departments and agencies of the Executive Branch are set forth in the Federal Personnel Manual, Chapter 735, Appendix C, which is entitled "Conflicts of Interest Statutes and Their Effects on Special Government Employees (Including Guidelines for Obtaining and Utilizing the Services of Special Government Employees)" (hereafter referred to as "Appendix C").
As a corollary to the enactment of S 202(a) and the provisions relating to SGE's in the sections that followed it, Congress at the same time enacted a separate provision, S 2 of Public Law 87-849, that foreclosed, as to S S 203-209, the carryover of any of the ad hoc statutory exemptions that were then on the books for the benefit of consultants or advisory committee members in the Executive Branch. Congress thus announced, in effect, that it had established conflict-of-interest measures with regard to those nonregular employees that gave due regard to their proper interests and to those of the Government as well-measures that eliminated the need for ad hoc corrective adjustments in the future.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ADVISORY COMMITTEES AND THEIR MEMBERSHIPS
Governing Standards of Appendix C.
The Legislative and Judicial Branches of Government aside, the conflict-of-interest statutes by their terms apply only to an "officer or employee" of the Executive Branch.? Almost without exception advisory committee members in that Branch are expected by their host agencies to perform services so infrequently as to require the agencies to place those who are employees in the ranks of the SGE's. For this reason, the authoritative guidelines for an agency's determination whether members of one of its advisory committees are employees for purposes of S s 202-209 appear in Appendix C, which pertains mostly to SGE's.8
Appendix C stems from President Kennedy's Memorandum to the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, dated February 9, 1962, and entitled "Preventing Conflicts of Interest on the Part of Advisers and Consultants to the Government."9 The chief purpose of the Memorandum, which was issued about a year before 18 U.S.C. S S 202-209 came into force, was to lay down rules and standards derived from the existing statutes for the guidance of agencies in their employment of part-time advisory personnel, including committee members. A
paragraph headed "Industry, Labor or Agricultural Representatives" informed the agencies that" (i)t is occasionally necessary to distinguish consultants and advisers from persons speaking for a firm or an industry, or for labor or agriculture, or in some other representative capacity" and went on to state that a consultant or adviser is a person who serves as an employee, while an outside
The term "employee" will be used hereafter to include an officer unless the context indicates otherwise.
See n. 6, supra.
3 C.F.R., 1959-1963 Comp. p. 818.
representative is not an employee and therefore not within the scope of the conflict-ofinterest laws.10
On May 2, 1963, President Kennedy replaced the Memorandum of February 9, 1962, with one entitled "Preventing Conflicts af Interest on the Part of Special Government Employees" that reflected the intervening enactment of SS 202-209. The new document essentially restated the paragraph described above and then added to it'a list of five principles for use in making the determination it required. The revised paragraph and appended principles read as follows:12
INDUSTRY, LABOR, AGRICULTURAL OR OTHER REPRESENTATIVES
It is occasionally necessary. to distinguish between consultants and advisers who are special Government employees and persons who are invited to appear at a department or agency in a representative capacity to speak for firms or an industry, or for labor or agriculture, or for any other recognizable group of persons, including on occasion the public at large. A consultant or adviser whose advice is obtained by a department or agency from time to time because of his individual qualifications and who serves in an independent capacity is an officer or employee of the Government. On the other hand, one who is requested to appear before a Government department or agency to present the views of a non-governmental organization or group which he represents, or for which he is in a position to speak, does not not act as a servant of the Government and is not its officer or employee. He is therefore not subject to the conflict of interest laws and is not within the scope of this memorandum. However, the section of this memorandum headed "Ethical Standards of Conduct" sets forth rules of ethics by which he should be guided even though not in the status of a Government official, and the agency before which he appears should call that section to his attention.
The following principles are useful in arriving at a determination whether an individual is acting before an agency in a representative capacity:
A person who receives compensation from the Government for his services as an adviser or consultant is its employee and not a representative of an outside group. However, the Government's payment of travel expenses and a per diem allowance does not by itself make the recipient an employee.
Id., at p. 824. This paragraph was the first published expression by the Government of the difference in status of employee-advisers and representative-advisers under the conflict-of-interest statutes.