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§ 201

TITLE 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Page 1024

§ 201. Bribery of public officials and witnesses

(a) For the purpose of this section:

“public official" means Member of Con-
gress, the Delegate from the District of Co-
lumbia, or Resident Commissioner, either
before or after he has qualified, or an officer
or employee or person acting for or on behalf
of the United States, or any department,
agency or branch of Government thereof, in-
cluding the District of Columbia, in any offi-
cial function, under or by authority of any
such department, agency, or branch of Gov-
ernment, or a juror; and

"person who has been selected to be a
public official" means any person who has
been nominated or appointed to be a public
official, or has been officially informed that
he will be so nominated or appointed; and

official act" means any decision or action
on any question, matter, cause, suit, proceed-
ing or controversy, which may at any time be
pending, or which may by law be brought
before any public official, in his official ca-
pacity, or in his place of trust or profit.

to influence such person to absent himself therefrom; or

(e) Whoever, directly or indirectly, corruptly
asks, demands, exacts, solicits, seeks, accepts,
receives, or agrees to receive anything of value
for himself or for any other person or entity in
return for being influenced in his testimony
under oath or affirmation as a witness upon
any such trial, hearing, or other proceeding, or
in return for absenting himself therefrom-

Shall be fined not more than $20,000 or three
times the monetary equivalent of the thing of
value, whichever is greater, or imprisoned for
not more than fifteen years, or both, and may
be disqualified from holding any office of
honor, trust, or profit under the United States.

(f) Whoever, otherwise than as provided by
law for the proper discharge of official duty, di-
rectly or indirectly gives, offers, or promises
anything of value to any public official, former
public official, or person selected to be a public
official, for or because of any official act per-
formed or to be performed by such public offi.
cial, former public official, or person selected to
be a public official; or

(g) Whoever, being a public official, former
public official, or person selected to be a public
official, otherwise than as provided by law for
the proper discharge of official duty, directly or
indirectly asks, demands, exacts, solicits, seeks,
accepts, receives, or agrees to receive anything
of value for himself for or because of any offi.
cial act performed or to be performed by him;

(b) Whoever, directly or indirectly, corruptly
gives, offers or promises anything of value to
any public official or person who has been se-
lected to be a public official, or offers or prom-
ises any public official or any person who has
been selected to be a public official to give any.
thing of value to any other person or entity,
with intent-

(1) to influence any official act; or

or

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(2) to influence such public official or (h) Whoever, directly or indirectly, gives,
person who has been selected to be a public offers, or promises anything of value to any
official to commit or aid in committing, or person, for or because of the testimony under
collude in, or allow, any fraud, or make op- oath or affirmation given or to be given by such
portunity for the commission of any fraud, on person as a witness upon a trial, hearing, or
the United States; or

other proceeding, before any court, any com-
(3) to induce such public official or such mittee of either House or both Houses of Con-
person who has been selected to be a public gress, or any agency, commission, or officer au-
official to do or omit to do any act in viola- thorized by the laws of the United States to
tion of his lawful duty, or

hear evidence or take testimony, or for or be

cause of his absence therefrom; or (c) Whoever, being a public official or person

(1) Whoever, directly or indirectly, asks, deselected to be a public official, directly or indi.

mands, exacts, solicits, seeks, accepts, receives, rectly, corruptly asks, demands, exacts, solicits,

or agrees to receive anything of value for himseeks, accepts, receives, or agrees to receive any

self for or because of the testimony under oath thing of value for himself or for any other

or affirmation given or to be given by him as a person or entity, in return for:

witness upon any such trial, hearing, or other (1) being influenced in his performance of

proceeding, or for or because of his absence any official act; or

therefrom(2) being influenced to commit or aid in

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imcommitting, or to collude in, or allow, any

prisoned for not more than two years, or both. fraud, or make opportunity for the commis

(j) Subsections (d), (e), (h), and (i) shall not sion of any fraud on the United States; or

be construed to prohibit the payment or receipt (3) being induced to do or omit to do any

of witness fees provided by law, or the payact in violation of his official duty; or

ment, by the party upon whose behalf a witness (d) Whoever, directly or indirectly, corruptly is called and receipt by a witness, of the reasongives, offers, or promises anything of value to able cost of travel and subsistence incurred and any person, or offers or promises such person the reasonable value of time lost in attendance to give anything of value to any other person or at any such trial, hearing, or proceeding, or in entity, with intent to influence the testimony the case of expert witnesses, involving a techniunder oath or affirmation of such first-men- cal or professional opinion, a reasonable fee for tioned person as a witness upon a trial, hearing, time spent in the preparation of such opinion, or other proceeding, before any court, any com- and in appearing and testifying. mittee of either House or both Houses of Con- (k) The offenses and penalties prescribed in gress, or any agency, commission, or officer au- this section are separate from and in addition thorized by the laws of the United States to to those prescribed in sections 1503, 1504, and hear evidence or take testimony, or with intent 1505 of this title.

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TITLE 18–CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

§ 201

(Added Pub. L. 87-849, § 1(a), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 and responsibilities of their employees. For example, Stat. 1119, and amended Pub. L. 91-405, title II, it may be appropriate to provide exceptions (1) gov$ 204(d)(1), Sept. 22, 1970, 84 Stat. 853.)

erning obvious family or personal relationships where

the circumstances make it clear that it is those relaPRIOR PROVISIONS

tionships rather than the business of the persons con

cerned which are the motivating factors—the clearest A prior section 201, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62

illustration being the parents, children or spouses of Stat. 691, which prescribed penalties for anyone who

federal employees; (2) permitting acceptance of food offered or gave anything of value to an officer or

and refreshments available in the ordinary course of a other person to influence his decisions, was eliminated

luncheon or dinner or other meeting or on inspection in the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L.

tours where an employee may properly be in atten87-849, and is substantially covered by revised section

dance; or (3) permitting acceptance of loans from 201.

banks or other financial institutions on customary Provisions similar to those comprising this section terms to finance proper and usual activities of employwere contained in former sections 201 to 213 of this

ees, such as home mortgage loans. This section shall title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter

be effective upon issuance of such regulations. by Pub. L. 87-849.

(c) It is the intent of this section that employees AMENDMENTS

avoid any action, whether or not specifically prohibit

ed by subsection (a), which might result in, or create 1970–Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91-405 included Delegate

the appearance of from District of Columbia in definition of "public offi- (1) using public office for private gain; cial".

(2) giving preferential treatment to any organization

(3) impeding government efficiency or economy:
Amendment by Pub. L. 91-405 effective on Sept. 22, (4) losing complete independence or impartiality of
1970, see section 206(b) of Pub. L. 91-405, summarized action;
in a note set out under section 25 of Title 2, The Con- (5) making a government decision outside official
gress.

(6) affecting adversely the confidence of the public
EFFECTIVE DATE

in the integrity of the Government. Section 4 of Pub. L. 87-849 provided that: “This Act

SEC. 202. An employee shall not engage in any out(adding sections 201 to 209, and 218 of this title, rede

side employment, including teaching, lecturing, or signating sections 214, 215, 217 to 222 as 210, 211, 212

writing, which might result in a conflict, or an apparto 217 of this title respectively, repealing sections 223,

ent conflict, between the private interests of the em282, 284, 434, and 1914 of this title, and section 99 of

ployee and his official government duties and responTitle 5, Executive Departments and Government Offi

sibilities, although such teaching, lecturing, and writ. cers and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as

ing by employees are generally to be encouraged so notes under section 281 and 282 of this title) shall take

long as the laws, the provisions of this order, and Civil effect ninety days after the date of its enactment

Service Commission and agency regulations covering (Oct. 23, 1962)".

conflict of interest and outside employment are observed. Ex. ORD. No. 11222. STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT

Page 1025

or person; EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1970 AMENDMENT

channels; or

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POR GOVERNMENT OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES
Ex. Ord. No. 11222, May 8, 1965, 30 F.R. 6469, as
amended by Ex. Ord. No. 11590, Apr. 23, 1971, 36 F.R.
7831, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Section
301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as Presi-
dent of the United States, it is hereby ordered as fol-
lows:

PART 1-POLICY
SECTION 101. Where government is based on the con-
sent of the governed, every citizen is entitled to have
complete confidence in the integrity of his govern-
ment. Each individual officer, employee, or adviser of
government must help to earn and must honor that
trust by his own integrity and conduct in all official
actions.

SEC. 203. Employees may not (a) have direct or indi-
rect financial interests that conflict substantially, or
appear to conflict substantially, with their responsibil-
ities and duties as Federal employees, or (b) engage in,
directly or indirectly, financial transactions as a result
of, or primarily relying upon, information obtained
through their employment. Aside from these restric-
tions, employees are free to engage in lawful financial
transactions to the same extent as private citizens.
Agencies may, however, further restrict such transac-
tions in the light of the special circumstances of their
individual missions.

Sec. 204. An employee shall not use Federal proper-
ty of any kind for other than officially approved ac-
tivities. He must protect and conserve all Federal
property, including equipment and supplies, entrusted
or issued to him.

SEC. 205. An employee shall not directly or indirectly
make use of or permit others to make use of, for the
purpose of furthering a private interest, official infor-
mation not made available to the general public.

Sec. 206. An employee is expected to meet all just fi-
nancial obligations, especially those—such as Federal,
State, or local taxes-which are imposed by law.

PART II-STANDARDS OF CONDUCT
SECTION 201. (a) Except in accordance with regula-
tions issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section,
no employee shall solicit or accept, directly or indirect-
ly, any gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan, or
any other thing of monetary value, from any person,
corporation, or group which-

(1) has, or is seeking to obtain, contractual or other
business or financial relationships with his agency;

(2) conducts operations or activities which are regu-
lated by his agency; or

(3) has interests which may be substantially affected
by the performance or nonperformance of his official
duty.

(b) Agency heads are authorized to issue regulations,
coordinated and approved by the Civil Service Com-
mission, implementing the provisions of subsection (a)
of this section and to provide for such exceptions
therein as may be necessary and appropriate in view
of the nature of their agency's work and the duties

PART III-STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT POR

SPECIAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES
SECTION 301. This part applies to all "special Govern-
ment employees" as defined in Section 202 of Title 18
of the United States Code, who are employed in the
Executive Branch.

Sec. 302. A consultant, adviser or other special Gov-
ernment employee must refrain from any use of his
public office which is motivated by, or gives the ap-
pearance of being motivated by, the desire for private
gain for himself or other persons, including particular-
ly those with whom he has family, business, or finan-
cial ties.

Sec. 303. A consultant, adviser, or other special Gov-
ernment employee shall not use any inside informa-

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TITLE 18-CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Page 1026

terests by such employees, subordinate to the heads of
agencies, as the Commission may designate. The Com-
mission shall prescribe the form and content of such
statements and the time or times and places for such
submission.

SEC. 403. (a) The interest of a spouse, minor child, or
other member of his immediate household shall be
considered to be an interest of a person required to
submit a statement by or pursuant to this part.

(b) In the event any information required to be in-
cluded in a statement required by or pursuant to this
part is not known to the person required to submit
such statement but is known to other persons, the
person concerned shall request such other persons to
submit the required information on his behalf.

(c) This part shall not be construed to require the
submission of any information relating to any person's
connection with, or interest in, any professional soci-
ety or any charitable, religious, social, fraternal, edu-
cational, recreational, public service, civic, or political
organization or any similar organization not conduct-
ed as a business enterprise and which is not engaged in
the ownership or conduct of a business enterprise.

SEC. 404. The Chairman of the Civil Service Commis-
sion shall report to the President any information con-
tained in statements required by Section 401 of this
part which may indicate a conflict between the finan-
cial interests of the official concerned and the perfor-
mance of his services for the Government. The Com-
mission shall report, or by regulation require report-
ing, to the head of the agency concerned any informa-
tion contained in statements submitted pursuant to
regulations issued under Section 402 of this part
which may indicate a conflict between the financial in-
terests of the officer or employee concerned and the
performance of his services for the Government.

Sec.. 405. The statements and amended statements
required by or pursuant to this part shall be held in
confidence, and no information as to the contents
thereof shall be disclosed except as the Chairman of

8 201

tion obtained as a result of his government service for
private personal gain, either by direct action on his
part or by counsel, recommendations or suggestions to
others, including particularly those with whom he has
family, business, or financial ties.

SEC. 304. An adviser, consultant, or other special
Government employee shall not use his position in
any way to coerce, or give the appearance of coercing,
another person to provide any financial benefit to him
or persons with whom he has family, business, or fi-
nancial ties.

SEC. 305. An adviser, consultant, or other special
Government employe shall not receive or solicit from
persons having business with his agency anything of
value as a gift, gratuity, loan or favor for himself or
persons with whom he has family, business, or finan-
cial ties while employed by the government or in con-
nection with his work with the government.

Sec. 306. Each agency shall, at the time of employ-
ment of a consultant, adviser, or other special Govern.
ment employee require him to supply it with a state-
ment of all other employment. The statement shall
list the names of all the corporations, companies,
firms, State or local governmental organizations, re-
search organizations and educational or other institu-
tions in which he is serving as employee, officer,
member, owner, director, trustee, adviser, or consul.
tant. In addition, it shall list such other financial in-
formation as the appointing department or agency
shall decide is relevant in the light of the duties the
appointee is to perform. The appointee may, but need
not, be required to reveal precise amounts of invest-
ments. The statement shall be kept current through-
out the period during which the employee is on the
Government rolls.

PART IV-REPORTING OF FINANCIAL INTERESTS
SECTION 401. (a) Not later than ninety days after the
date of this crder, the head of each agency, each
Presidential appointee in the Executive Office of the

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