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the reports. While the contacts generally did not know how task forces conducted reviews, most said that task forces relied on previously generated data/findings and worked in teams.

Interviewed agency employees

Agency contacts said that most task force interviews occurred at top management levels (for example, Secretary, Deputy/ Under Secretaries, Assistant Secretaries). In addition, task forces also have interviewed directors/managers who oversee programs and administrative operations. A few agency contacts referred to interviews with career employees (for example, analysts).

Overall, many contacts were unsure about who task forces interviewed or planned to interview. This uncertainty partially existed because some task forces just began. A). So, not all agencies required task forces to identify interviewees. Some contacts said that a task force was given complete freedom to interview whomever it desired. A few required coordinating all interviews in the agency.

Task force membership

In this area, agency contacts exhibited a great deal of uncertainty. They stated that they generally (1) deal only with the project manager and (2) lacked an updated list of task force members--especially since membership changes periodically. While contacts did not disclose most task force members' names, they did provide a few. Also, they estimated how many members worked on task forces. About half of the contacts praised the members' expertise. They felt fortunate to have experts reviewing many areas that the agency perceived as problems.

Agency support to task forces

Agencies commonly provided space, furniture, and staff time for briefings and interviews. In these cases, agency contacts usually explained that the (1) items were surplus and (2) staff time was well used or similar to time spent with GAO or a consultant. Many agencies also referred to equipment (for example, phones and typewriters) and supplies. Further, a few agencies provided minimal clerical support.

Agency comments on task
Force effects/operations

Most agency contacts viewed the task forces as positive attempts to identify cost savings. They generally viewed task force members as very talented experts who provided free advice and an objective viewpoint.

Given these perceptions, most agencies seemed willing to help the task forces and had an open mind on the findings. Some agencies eagerly supported the task forces' efforts and awaited the recommendations.

Many said that task force's presence forced them to improve operations. Also, contacts believed a "fresh, objective look" was healthy because it generated new ideas or reconsidered old ones. Many saw no problems emerging from the task forces' work.

Nevertheless, some agency contacts had negative views about how task forces operated. While all agency contacts said something positive about the task forces, a few referred to negative aspects such as whether the task force members could learn complex issues in a short time and whether members had formed conclusions before doing the review.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO DATE

August 18, 1982

Aetna Life Insurance Company
Allied Corporation
American Cyanamid Company
American International Group, Inc.
American Telephone & Telegraph Co.
BankAmerica Foundation
Beneficial Corporation
The Boeing Company
Borden Foundation
CBS, Inc.
CIGNA Corporation
CSX Corporation
Champion International Corp.
Chevron, U.S.A., Inc.
Citicorp
The Coca Cola Co.
Continental Group Foundation, Inc.
Corning Glass works Foundation

Dresser Industries, Inc.

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company
Eastman Kodak Company
Esmark, Inc.
Exxon Corporation
Federated Department Stores, Inc.
General Dynamics Corporation
General Electric Co.
General Foods Corp.
General Mills Foundation
General Signal corporation
General Telephone & Electronics Corp.
Georgia-Pacific Foundation
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
Hercules, Incorporated
Hewlett-Packard Co.
Honeywell, Inc.
Ingersoll Rand Company
InterFirst Corporation
International Business Machines Corp.
International Minerals & Chemical Corp.
Johnson & Johnson
Kimberly-Clark Corporation
Manufacturers Hanover Trust Company
Marsh & McLennan Companies, Inc.
Melville Corporation
Merck & Co., Inc.
Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc.
Metropolitan Life Foundation

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS CONTINUED

Milliken & Company
Mobil Corporation
Monsanto Company
Norton-Simon, Inc.
PepsiCo Foundation
Procter & Gamble Fund
The Prudential Foundation
R. H. Macy & Co., Inc.
Sears, Roebuck and co.
The Signal Companies, Inc.
SmithKline Beckman Corp.
Southern California Edison Company
TRW, Inc.
Texas Commerce Bancshares, Inc.
Union Carbide Corporation
Union Pacific Corporation
United Technologies Corporation
W. R. Grace & Co.
Warner-Lambert Company
Wells Fargo Foundation
Wheelabrator Foundation, Inc.
Whirlpool Corporation
Winn-Dixie Stores Foundation
Anheuser-Busch, Inc.
First Bank System, Inc.
Newmont Mining Corporation
Tenneco, Inc.
United Telecommunications, Inc.
American Financial Corporation
American Standard, Inc.
Bethlehem Steel Corporation
Burlington Industries, Inc.
Champion Spark Plug Co.
Delaware Trust Company
The First Boston Corporation
Fluor Corporation
Frank B. Hall & Co., Inc.
GK Technologies Incorporated
Jewel Companies, Inc.
Liberty National Life Insurance Co.
Marine Midland Banks, Inc.
Marshall & Ilsley Bank Foundation Inc.
Mercantile Stores Co., Inc.
Metromedia, Inc.
National Steel Corporation
Nationwide Mutual Insurance Co.
North American Philips Corporation
Northrop Corporation
Northwest Airlines
Paine Webber Incorporated
Prince Foundation

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS CONTINUED

RichSeaPak Corporation St. Joe Minerals Corporation Stewart Warner Foundation The First National Bank of Chicago Westvaco Corporation Whittaker Corporation Colt Industries, Inc. Heublein, Inc. Middle South Utilities, Inc. Raytheon Co. The Williams Companies Hershey Foods Corporation Hughes Tool Company The New York Times Co. Richardson-Vicks, Inc. Campbell Soup Company Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb AVCO Corporation Cameron Iron Works, Inc. Carpenter Technology Corp. Financial World General Reinsurance. Corp. Holiday Inns, Inc. Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York The Peoples Gas Light & Coke Company The Philadelphia National Bank Provident Charitable Trust Ex-Cell-o Corporation Intel Corp. Rockwell International Corporation Amax Foundation, Inc. Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. The Chase Manhattan Bank Celanese Corporation Gould Foundation McGraw-Hill, Inc. Shell Companies Foundation The Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York NCNB Corporation United States Fidelity & Guaranty Company | Wachovia Bank & Trust Company McGraw-Edison Company Texas Instruments Incorporated American Brands, Inc. The Lear Siegler Foundation Texas Utilities Company Aluminum Company of America

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS CONTINUED

Standard Brands
F. W. Woolworth Co.
Litton Industries
R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.
The Charter Foundation, Inc.
Freeport-McMoran, Inc.
Boise Cascade Corporation
Chemical Bank
AMF Foundation
Bristol-Myers Company
The American Petrofina Foundation
Time Incorporated
Phillips Petroleum Company
NCR Corporation
Kellogg Co.
The Equitable Life Assurance Society

of the United States
Xerox Corporation
The Pittston Company
Kerr-McGee Foundation
The InterNorth Foundation
CPC International
The Pfizer Foundation, Inc.
Witco Chemical Corporation
Schering-Plough Corporation
Bankers Trust Company
Allied Stores Corporation
Scott Paper Company
Sperry Corporation
Texaco U.S.A.
The Bank of New York

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