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Metropolitan Fire Ins. Co., 359 Ill. 584 (1935); Minnesota, State Bank of Gibbon v. Walter, 167 Minn. 37, 38, 208 N. W. 423 (1926), Waldron v. Page, 191 Minn. 302, 253 N. W. 894 (1934); New Jersey, N. J. Comp. Stat. "? Cum. Sup. 1911–1924) tit. 163, $ 303, as interpreted in Bussy v. Hatch, 95 N. J. L. 56, 111 A. 546 (1920); New York York Mortgage Corporation v. Clotar Const. Corp., 254 N. Y. 28, 133 (1930); North Dakota, Comp. Laws Ann. (1913) $ 7846, as amended by N. D. Laws 1933, ch. 208, Milnor Holdi ig Co. v. Holt, 63 N. D. 362, 370, 248 N. W.315 (1933); Ok] homa, Wichita Mining and Improvement Co. v. Hale, 20)kla. 159, 167 (1908); South Dakota, Randall v. Burk Tonship, 4 S. D. 337, 57 N. W. 4 (1893); Texas, Custard v. F wwers, 14 S. W. (2d) 109 (1929); Utah, Rev. Stat. Ann. (1933) $ 104-41–5; Vermont, Roberge v. Troy, 105 Vt. 134 (1933); Washington, 2 Rev. Stat. Ann. (Remington, 1932) $$ 309-316; McCullough v. Puget Sound Realty Associates, 76 Wash. 700, 136 Pac. 1146 (1913), but see Cornwall y. Anderson, 85 Wash. 369, 148 Pac. 1 (1915); West Virginia, Kinsey v. Carr, 60 W. Va. 449, 55 S. E. 1004 (1906), semble; Wisconsin, Stat. (1935) § 251.09; Campbell v. Sutliff, 19? Wis. 370, 214 N. W. 374 (1927), Gessler v. Erwin Co., 18. Wis. 315, 193 N. W. 363 (1924).

For examples of an assimilation of the review of findings of fact in cases tried without a jury to the review at law as made in several states, see Clark and Stone, Review of Findings of Fact, 4 U. of. Chi. L. Rev. 190, 215 (1937). Rule 53. Masters.

Note to Subdivision (a). This is a modification of Equity Rule 68 (Appointment and Compensation of Masters).

Note to Subdivision (6). This is substantially the first sentence of Equity Rule 59 (Reference to Master-Exceptional, Not Usual) extended to actions formerly legal. See Ex parte Peterson, 253 U. S. 300, 40 S. Ct. 543, 64 L. Ed. 919 (1920).

Note to Subdivision (c). This is Equity Rules 62 (Powers of Master) and 65 (Claimants Before Master Examinable by Him) with slight modifications. Compare Equity Rules 49 (Evidence Taken Before Examiners, Etc.) and 51 (Evidence Taken Before Examiners, Etc.).

Note to Subdivision (d). (1) This is substantially a combination of the second sentence of Equity Rule 59 (Reference to Master-Exceptional, Not Usual) and Equity Rule 60 (Proceedings Before Master). Compare Equity Rule 53 (Notice of Txing Testimony Before Examiner, Etc.).

(2) This is substantially Equity Rule 52 (Attendance of Witnesses Before Commissioner, Master, or Examiner).

(3) This is substantially Equity Rule 63 (Form of Accounts Before:Master).

Note to Swedivision (e). This contains the substance of Equity Rules 61 (Master's Report-Documents Identified but not Set Forth), 61% (Master's Report-Presumption as to Correctnesz--Review), and 66 (Return of Master's Report-Exceptions—Hearing), with modifications as to the form and effect of the report and for inclusion of reports by auditors, referees, and examiners, and references in actions formerly legal. Compare Equity Rules 49 (Evidence Taken Before Examiners, Etc.) and 67 (Costs on Exceptions to Master's Report). See Camden v. Stuart, 144 U. S. 104 (1892); Ex parte Peterson, 253 U. S. 300, 40 S. Ct. 543, 64 L. Ed. 919 (1920).

165714°-3919

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State
423

VII. JUDGMENT

Rule 54. Judgments; Costs.

Note to Subdivision (c) substantially from Equit,

Note to Subdivision judgment of equity and $ 270.54; Compare N.

Note to Subdivis contained in the (1913) § 7680; N.

iezon (a). The second sentence is derived om Equity Rule 71 (Form of Decree). bdivision (6). This provides for the separate

quity and code practice. See Wis. Stat. (1935) impare N. Y. C. P. A. (1937) § 476.

Subdivision (c). For the limitation on default ő in the first sentence, see 2 N. D. Comp. Laws Ann.

§ 7680; N. Y. C. P. A. (1937) § 479. Compare ich Rules Under the Judicature Act (The Annual Prac1937) O. 13, r. r. 3–12. The remainder is a usual code

vision. It makes clear that a judgment should give the Flief to which a party is entitled, regardless of whether it is legal or equitable or both. This necessarily includes the deficiency judgment in foreclosure cases formerly provided for by Equity Rule 10 (Decree for Deficiency in Foreclosures, Etc.).

Note to Subdivision (d). For the present rule in common law actions, see Ex parte Peterson, 253 U. S. 300, 40 S. Ct. 543, 64 L. Ed. 919 (1920); Payne, Costs in Common Law Actions in the Federal Courts (1935), 21 Va. L. Rev. 397.

The provisions as to costs in actions in forma pauperis contained in U. S. C., Title 28, $$ 832–836 are unaffected by this rule. Other sections of U. S. C., Title 28, which are unaffected by this rule are: $$ 815 (Costs; plaintiff not entitled to, when), 821 (Costs; infringement of patent; disclaimer), 825 (Costs; several actions), 829 (Costs; attorney liable for, when), and 830 (Costs; bill of; taxation).

The provisions of the following and similar statutes as to costs against the United States and its officers and agencies are specifically continued: U. S. C., Title 15, 88 77v (a), 78aa, 79y (Securities and

Exchange Commission)
U. S. C., Title 16, § 825p (Federal Power Commission)

The Pe unalteritle 7: of the

costs of.es. C., Titider of the

U. S. C., Title 26, $$ 1569 (d) and 1645 (d) (Internal

revenue actions) U. S. C., Title 26, § 1670 (b) (2) (Reimbursement of

costs of recovery against revenue officers) U. S. C., Title 28, 8 817 (Internal revenue actions) U. S. C., Title 28, § 836 (United States-actions in

forma pauperis) U.S. C., Title 28, $ 842 (Actions against revenue officers) U. S. C., Title 28, § 870 (United States—in certain

cases) U. S. C., Title 28, § 906 (United States—foreclosure

actions) U.S. C., Title 47, $ 401 (Communications Commission) The provisions of the following and similar statutes as to costs are unaffected: U. S. C., Title 7, § 210 (f) (Actions for damages based

on ar. order of th. Secretary of Agriculture under

Stockyards Act)
U. S. C., Title 7, § 499g (c) (Appeals from reparations

orders of Secretary of Agriculture under Perishable

Commodities Act)
U. S. C., Title 8, § 45 (Action against district attorneys

in certain cases)
U. S. C., Title 15, § 15 (Actions for injuries due to vio-

lation of antitrust laws) U. S. C., Title 15, $ 72 (Actions for violation of law

forbidding importation or sale of articles at less

than market value or wholesale prices) U. S. C., Title 15, § 77k (Actions by persons acquiring

securities registered with untrue statements under

Securities Act of 1933)
U. S. C., Title 15, § 78i (e) (Certain actions under

the Securities Exchange Act of 1934)
U. S. C., Title 15, $ 78r (Similar to 78i (e))
U. S. C., Title 15, § 96 (Infringement of trade-mark-

damages) U. S. C., Title 15, $ 99 (Infringement of trade-mark

injunctions) U. S. C., Title 15, 8 124 (Infringement of trade-mark

damages)

U.S. C., Title 19, § 274 (Certain actions under customs

law) U. S. C., Title 30, § 32 (Action to determine right

to possession of mineral lands in certain cases) U. S. C., Title 31, $$ 232 and 234 (Action for mak

ing false claims upon United States)
U.S. C., Title 33, § 926 (Actions under Harbor Workers'

Compensation Act)
U. S. C., Title 35, § 67 (Infringement of patent-

damages)
U. S. C., Title 35, $ 69 (Infringement of patent-plead-

ing and proof) U. S. C., Title 35, $ 71 (Infringement of patent—when

specification too broad) U. S. C., Title 45, § 153p (Actions for non-compliance

with an order of National R. R. Adjustment

Board for payment of money)
U. S. C., Title 46, § 38 (Action for penalty for failure

to register vessel)
U. S. C., Title 46, § 829 (Action based on non-compli-

ance with an order of Maritime Commission for

payment of money)
U. S. C., Title 46, § 941 (Certain actions under Ship

Mortgage Act)
U. S. C., Title 46, § 1227 (Actions for damages for vio-

lation of certain provisions of the Merchant Ma

rine Act, 1936) U. S. C., Title 47, $ 206 (Actions for certain violations

of Communications Act of 1934) U. S. C., Title 49, § 16 (2) (Action based on non-com

pliance with an order of I. C. C. for payment of

money) Rule 55. Default.

This represents the joining of the equity decree pro confesso (Equity Rules 12 (Issue of Subpoena–Time for Answer), 16 (Defendant to Answer—Default-Decree Pro Confesso), 17 (Decree Pro Confesso to be Followed by Final Decree-Setting Aside Default), 29(Defenses--How Presented), 31 (Reply-When Required—When Cause at Issue)) and the judgment by default now governed by U. S. C.,

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