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Wakelin, Jr., the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development, to serve as chairman of a group of representatives from the Departments of Defense, Interior, and Commerce, the National Science Foundation, and Atomic Energy Commission. This subcommittee evaluated the NASCO report and submitted its first report to the Federal Council in September 1959, generally endorsing the goals recommended by NASCO. At the same time, Dr. Wakelin's subcommittee recommended that the Federal Council establish a group which would review Federal projects in the marine sciences on a permanent basis. It was also envisaged that this group would coordinate Federal oceanographic activities in the national interest. Thus the Federal Council established the Interagency Committee on Oceanography on January 22, 1960.

On March 10, 1961, Dr. Jerome B. Wiesner, the Chairman of the Federal Council for Science and Technology, documented the mission and function of the ICO. I should like to offer this letter for the record, which is the letter addressed to Dr. Wakelin.

The CHAIRMAN. All right, we will put that in the record.
(The letter follows:)

March 10, 1961.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development, Washington, D.C.

DEAR DR. WAKELIN : The President has determined to continue the Federal Council for Science and Technology and has asked me to serve as Chairman. Accordingly, I am writing to affirm the continuance of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography as a permanent Committee of the Council under section 4 of Executive Order 10807. I also would like to have you continue to serve as Chairman of the ICO and report its activities directly to the Federal Council for Science and Technology.

It shall be the mission of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography to develop, annually, a national oceanographic program, incorporating its best judgment as to balance and emphasis in terms of both long-range scientific needs and requirements of Government agencies by :

(a) Reviewing current activities and planned programs of individual agencies in the context of the Government's overall long-range effort.

(6) Engaging in cordinated budget planning so as to recommend level of funding required for each fiscal year.

(c) Considering special problems that may arise in implementing the national program and recommending solutions therefor.

The Committee should consider, in addition, any other matters it deems relevant and important in advancing oceanography in the national interest.

In carrying out these functions, it is suggested that the Committee make use, as it deems appropriate, of assistance and studies from organizations such as the informal Coordinating Committee on Oceanography and the Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences. The operating procedures of the Committee shall be determined by the Committee itself in order to best meet the objectives stated above.

With regard to the national oceanographic program, it is suggested that the Committee submit to the Council, annually on August 1, a recommended program of oceanographic effort and on February 1, annually, an approved national oceanographic program, based on the President's budget, for transmittal to the Congress.

The Council joins me in extending its appreciation to you and the Interagency Committee on Oceanography for your past efforts in the formulation of a national program which has been well conceived and orderly expanded. We are confident that the future work of the Committee will continue in this productive manner. Sincerely yours,



Dr. MORSE. During the ensuing years, the ICO has found it desirable to include representatives of the Treasury Department's Coast Guard, the State Department, and the Smithsonian Institution as full committee members. Representatives of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Oceanography, the Office of Science and Technology, and the Bureau of the Budget are observers and attend every meeting, thus rounding out an organization which can be said to cover all of the sectors of the executive branch of the Government with direct interests in the marine sciences.

Mr. Chairman, I should like to distribute two charts, enter them in the record, which will give you and your committee members a view of our table of organization as well as our advisory panel system. In addition, I should like your permission to include these charts in the record as well. I think you may have them there. They do list the agencies involved which you asked earlier about.

The CHAIRMAN. All right. (The charts follow :)




Defense (Navy)
Interior (Bureau of Commercial

Commerce (U.S. Coast and

Geodetic Survey)
Treasury (U.S. Coast Guard)
National Science Foundation
Health, Education, and Welfare

(Ottice of Education)
Atomic Energy Commission,
State Department

Office of Naval Research
Naval Oceanographic Office
Bureau of Weapons
Bureau of Ships
Bureau of Yards and Docks
Coastal Engineering Research

Center (U.S. Army, Corps

of Engineers)
Coast & Geodetic Survey
Weather Bureau
Maritime Administration
Bureau of Commercial

Bureau of Sports Fisherles

and Wildlife
Geological Survey
Bureau of Mines
National Science Foundation
Atomic Energy Commission
Public Health Service
Office of Education
U.S. Coast Guard
Smithsonian Institution

Bureau of the Budget
National Academy of


on Oceanography Ottice of Science and


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Dr. MORSE. Dr. Hornig has indicated the position of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography within the Federal Council structure, and has spoken of the many interests of the Council and the manner in which it is organized to fulfill its own charter. The first chart I have given you delineates not only the full membership of the ICO, but the agencies which are indirectly represented by the membership as well. You can see from this chart that each department is represented by one ICO member so that, for instance, Mr. McKernan, Director of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, represents the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Geological Survey, and the Bureau of Mines, as well as his own bureau. In this manner, we have maintained the flexibility of a small group while still permitting representation by all of the cognizant units in the Government.

Owing to the wide diversity of subject matter encompassed by the ICO and the detailed questions which continually arise, the ICỎ has found it expeditious to carry out its mission via advisory panels in the functional areas of research, surveys, international programs, ship construction, instrumentation and facilities, manpower and training, and, most recently, a panel on ocean engineering. In order to permit the committee to review quickly the functions of these panels, I should like to offer copies of the charters for the record.

The CHAIRMAN. All right. (The charters follow :)



The Interagency Committee on Oceanography, Panel on Ocean Engineering is established to:

1. Determine and evaluate the Federal oceanographic program and its content, as it is related to those aspects of marine technology useful in allowing men to live in, operate on and use the sea in the best national interests.

2. Collect and disseminate technical information about enginering apects directed toward utilization of the oceans.

3. Initiate and coordinate studies of interest to the ICO in areas of marine engineering.

4. Advise the Interagency Committee on Oceanography as to the direction and action necessary to develop, for the national good, a coordinated and progressive plan for the exploration and exploitation of the oceans, stressing the use and potential of sound engineering practices.

5. Work in concert with existing ICO panels where mutually beneficial exchanges will enhance the present technologies necessary for the exploration and exploitation of the world oceans.

6. Determine the present and projected requirements for oceanographic knowledge to be applied to the solution of ocean engineering problems.



The objectives of the Manpower and Training Panel are to identify those problem areas in manpower which are likely to impede the national oceanographic program and to propose programs to the ICO for the solution of such problems.



The purpose of this panel is twofold:

(1) To insure that U.S. participation in the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and other international programs proceeds in an aggressive, judicious, and timely manner; and (2) that the panel provides a forum whereby the

various U.S. activities in international programs have a common meeting point. This allows the ICO to be aware of all aspects of U.S. participation in international oceanographic programs.



The responsibilities of the Research Panel of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography are to become aware of the principal research activities of the participating agencies of the ICO; to provide for the free exchange of information concerning research programs of the agencies; to coordinate the presentation of the budgets of the various agencies in order to provide a broad research effort in line with the national objectives, and to develop special reports on the research plans and progress of the Federal Government in oceanographic research. The Research Panel should have representation from all agencies responsible for carrying on or supporting oceanographic research. The panel should be responsible for the production of special reports calling attention to the ICO to areas in oceanography which require special budget consideration. It should be the responsibility of the Research Panel to prepare draft material and to edit special reports in the areas of oceanic research. The panel should make recommendations to the Chairman of the ICO concerning the adequacy of the overall Federal program in oceanography and make recommendations concerning the assignment of research responsibilities among the agencies as required.



It is the mission of the ICO Ocean Surveys Panel to: 1. Provide for coordination in the planning of all marine surveys by agencies of the Federal Government in order to prevent unintentional duplication of effort and to effect mutual cooperation where such cooperation benefits one or all of the agencies concerned.

2. Provide a mechanism whereby the nongovernmental scientific body can provide advice to and receive operational assistance from the Federal marine survey agencies.

3. Translate the general oceanwide survey recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Oceanography (NASCO) into an operational plan and, insofar as is possible, provide for the implementation of the resultant program.

4. Annually prepare a summary, including proposed funding, of the Federal marine survey efforts for consideration by the full Interagency Committee on Oceanography. Such summary will include recommendations for meeting existing survey deficiencies.

5. When so requested by the ICO, evaluate specific survey proposals presented by Federal agencies or nongovernmental organizations and make recommendations to the ICO.

6. Prepare for use by the ICO material on the survey program as required for use by the Congress, the Federal Council for Science and Technology.


As originally authorized by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Development in June of 1960. A Ships Panel of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography (ICO) was established to undertake the following:

1. Review individual agency ship construction and conversion programs to determine what ships are required.

2. Comment on the characteristics and means for funding.
3. Recommend types of ships which may be standardized to reduce cost.

4. Recommend standardization of equipage and scientific instrumentation where feasible.

5. Recommend the sizes of ships for appropriate assignment to laboratories and programs.

6. Determine reasonable estimates of construction costs. Estimate operating costs under various types of operation, i.e., manning by MSTS, Navy crews, and civilian laboratories.

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