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2. USWB.—Tiros infrared radiation data are available at Wallops Island in print-out and magnetic tape for Tiros II and III and will become available for Tiros IV soon. Approximately 1 million punchcards would be required to punch these data.
3. NWRC.-There are about 20 coastal weather stations which observe and report incoming radiation. Approximately 500,000 observations.
4. Numerous coastal marine laboratories with radiation measuring equipment.
VIII. Nearshore Station Data Some of these data already processed and in our archives. Total number not determined, however, they will be separated from the ocean station data when the nearshore deck is devised.
Stations A. U.S. sources.
10, 000 B. Foreign lightships and stations (Swedish, Dutch, Finnish, German, Yugoslav, Italian).
30, 000 C. Japanese (JHO, JMA, and fisheries agencies)
25, 000 D. Russian (Baltic, Black Sea, Arctic, etc.) -
15, 000 E. Australian..
5, 000 F. Others (New Zealand, South America, southeast Asia, India, etc.)-- 10,000 Total.
IX. Underwater Photography
The following individuals in the indicated agencies or institutions were contacted in an effort to determine the amount of photography available and the type and amount of backup information and the system used in archiving the material.
U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office.-From previous discussions with Mr. S. W. Oliver, George Keller, and Richard Nekritz, it was established that NAVOCEANO has a very small amount of single or limited exposure type of photography. Approximately 3 years ago, NAVOCEANO became interested in volume photographic procurement. In that time, about 500 lowerings have been made resulting in about 300 steropairs per lowering.
Mr. Nekritz went to Lamont and WHOI in September 1963 to determine the extent of data held. The following is a résumé of his findings :
Lamont.-Four cruises of the VEMA (1417) totaling 225 camera stations with an average of 20 pictures per station. This totals 4,500 prints. VEMA Cruise 18, listed in the GSA Bulletin January 1964 details the camera stations and totals 918 pictures. No figures are available for VEMA Cruise 19 (1963), but it is estimated that the number of stations and prints are about the same as Cruise 18. It is estimated that Lamont holds about 7,000 prints; track charts, camera log sheets and interpretation of the photographs are available. A good filing system exists.
Woods Hole.-The major collection at WHOI consists of photos from approximately 13 cruises of the WHOI ships. There are as many as 500 stero-pairs taken at each station, but the average usable items are closer to 200 stero-pairs and single photos. There are about 17,913 stero-pairs and 4,435 single photos on file. Track charts, log sheets, and descriptive data are available. A good system exists.
NEL and SIO–Dr. Robert Dietz was contacted for information on these sources. He indicated that NEL has several thousand photos in a well-organized filing system. The holdings at SIO would be difficult to determine because they do not have a central filing system. Each individual is responsible for the photography in his area of interest. He estimates that SIO's oldings total several thousand.
U.S.C. & G.S.—Mr. William Harris stated that they have two cameras in operation. This equipment is still considered to be in a stage of experimentation. No formal program has been initiated. The camera on the west coast has taken about 100 rolls of film (500 stero-pairs per roll) and the Atlantic camera has taken 50 rolls. The total holdings are in the neighborhood of 45,000 pictures. There are the usual plot sheets and logs, but their filing system is not too well organized to date.
Remarks.These sampled agencies and institutions comprise the majority of the sources with the modern techniques ; also, that are capable of volume procurement. It is estimated that the remaining photography in existence closely approximates the volume of photography obtained in the last 3 years with the newer equipment. The domestic and foreign holdings of underwater photography probably exceed 200,000 usable prints to date. The development of better cameras with greater capabilities, improved light sources, and more accurate means of positioning, will increase the volume and minimize the number of dropouts per station. Present reject rate ranges from 25 percent to 75 percent per station.
X. Nonnutrient Chemical Data It is estimated that there are about 25,000 to 50,000 observations of this type (074, trace elements, etc.)
Estimated manpower and cost required to eliminate data backlog within a
period of 5 years
NOTE.-Cost based on annual salary of $7,488. Geological and biological costs do not include any laborgtory or analytical work; only processing changes are shown.
POTENTIAL RESOURCES OF THE OCEAN
(By Wilbert McLeod Chapman, Van Camp Sea Food Co.) Last year we were asked on several occasions by different entities in and out of the U.S. Government to participate in thinking and planning respecting what should be the nature size and scope of the national oceanographic program. As one part of this activity we prepared our thoughts in a paper “Fishery Aspects of the National Oceanographic Program.” We circulated copies of this to colleagues in the industry academic ocean researchers nutritionists and governmental officials involved in planning and carrying forward such activities. We asked that
our ideas be read carefully and critically so that we could all move forward more expeditiously to a greater understanding and use of the ocean.
The response to this request was fruitful beyond our expectations and we wish to use this opportunity to thank each of you who took of your busy time to respond.
Obviously if the Government or the world is going to invest the large sums in ocean research suggested in that paper and in our considered judgment required if the world ocean harvest is to be maximized there requires to be some account taken of whether the potential resources of the ocean are adequate in scope to justify the expense.
The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission a semiautonomous body in UNESCO has been dealing actively with the scientific aspects of this question. Pursuant to its requests its two scientific advisory bodies (the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) of the International Council of Scientific Unions and the Advisory Committee on Marine Resources Research (ACMRR) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) have made reports to it upon a general scientific framework for world ocean study. These two reports are in the process of publication and distribution by IOC to the ocean scientific community of the world for critical comment by individual scientists as well as by their several organizations and representatives.
In our view both of these documents are of extraordinary quality and merit your serious attention and comment. The problems of exploration understanding and utilization of what 71 percent of the earth's surface which comprises the world ocean are so complex huge and varied that their elucidation will require the concerted efforts of all ocean scientists from every race, country, and society. A world organization such as IOC is no better than its constituent scientists make it. The planning work upon which IOC is engaged is of fundamental importance to the progress of ocean science and its ability to contribute to mankind's welfare. It will be no better than you make it through your thoughtful contributions.
The Committee on Oceanography of National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council has been examining another aspect of this matter, the economic justification of ocean research. It has just published an excellent study of the application of cost-effectiveness technique to support the case for basic ocean research (see Greenberg, Science, Dec. 25, 1964, vol. 146, No. 3652, pp. 1659–60). The oversimplified conclusion of the report is that an annual nondefense expenditure of $165 million over the next 10 to 15 years could be an essential component in saving $3 billion a year, chiefly through conservation practices, and in adding annual production of about another $3 billion. We commend this report to your close examination.
Our department of resources has been asked to comment on the probable extent of harvestable resources of the ocean. In a lecture at Universidad Agraria, La Molina, Lima, Peru in November; again at UNESCO's first Latin American Seminar on the Oceanography of the Eastern Pacific Ocean at the end of November; and in a lecture to the Air War College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala. in early December, this subject was dealt with in a preliminary manner. The attached document is the body of the latter lecture.
There are major difficulties in giving any clear concept of the potential resources of the world ocean. A first difficulty is that the ocean is so big, various, and variable, that one can hardly form a clear, simple idea about it. The second is that we really do not know very much about the ocean and its resources so that there is difficulty in saying what, and how much, will turn out to be of use to man. Thirdly, for the most part, it does not belong to anybody in particular and it is quite difficult to use the concept potential resource in such a context because almost everything else we think about, except the air, belongs to someone or some country, and even the airspace over a country belongs to that country in a real sense.
THE SIZE OF THE OCEAN
Jet airplane travel is destroying gradually a person's ability to judge large geographic distances. Even so it takes the better part of 2 days to fly Singapore to San Diego, one is not in sight of land very much during this time, and one is only flying over one of the larger parts of the world ocean, the Pacific. Even the Pacific seemed to be larger back about 20 years ago when it took 17 days and nights of travel on a troopship just to get from Guadalcanal to San Francisco, and no land was seen in the interim at all.
Perhaps it suffices to say that the ocean is the biggest thing there is around that one can readily think about, and it is too big to comprehend all at one sitting. Like a billion dollars, it is a useful concept and a nice thing to have, but a little difficult to get specifically focused in mind as to details.
All of the communicating seas and oceans of the world, known under the collective name world ocean, cover about 70.8 percent of the earth's surface and contain about 1,370 million cubic kilometers of water (Moiseev, 1964). Dissolved in this water is some of almost everything there is on land and air because water is such a wonderful solvent, and the ocean has been here so long, possibly before there was dry land. Because there is so much water there is an enormous amount of material of any sort dissolved in it from gold to hydrogen. Some things are simply more abundant than others. With few exceptions the ocean is also the oldest thing around, because most land, including the highest mountains, have been under its surface at one time or another, and sometimes more than once.
Life started in the ocean and there it still thrives in such enormous profusion and volume as to stagger the imagination. More living matter is currently being created in the ocean than on land for the simple reason that not only does nearly three-quarters of the solar radiation striking the earth fall upon the ocean, but by penetrating into the ocean to a life developing extent by 50 or more meters, it generates new life through microscopic plants that dwell throughout that thickness, rather than just that rising from the surface as on land. Most organic matter on earth is in the ocean; very large quantities of it (and perhaps as much as 90 percent) is in a dissolved state and not even organized into living matter. The volume of living matter itself that is in the ocean is so vast as to defy comprehension. (Kesteven, 1963).
For eons before there was life on earth, and ever since there has been, a rain of precipitates filtering down out of the ocean has been slowly building up sediments on its bottom. Since life began there has been added to this rain of sediments the debris of living things that did not go back into solution upon death, so that the ocean floor is covered with a great variety of materials useful to man, but seen on land only where upheavals of land masses have brought these sedimentary deposits up to the air, or at least shallowly enough under the earth so man can dig them out. (Revelle, et al., June 1964).
While the narrow, shallow rim of earth under the ocean and around the continents, called the Continental Shelf, will probably turn out, upon full investigation, to be composed about like the adjacent land masses, it is not necessarily so that the composition of the hard rock under the sediments smoothing over the bottom of the deep sea bed (or of the submarine hills, valleys, and mountain ranges borne by it) will turn out to be the same. In any event the crust of the earth (and all land we see is so called by geologists) is much thinner under the deep sea bed than it is under the land masses, and its composition there is not yet well known. The mantle below it. on which the crust floats, is perhaps within practical possibility of being drilled into to see from what it is made, and it is the function of the National Science Foundation's operational mohole to do this. Until this is successfully accomplished, our knowledge of composition of both crust and mantle under the deep sea bed will remain conjectural. (E. Oroman, 1964; G. A. Thompson, and M. Talwani, 1964).
THE NEWNESS OF OCEAN SCIENCE
At least since there have been men recognizeable as Homo sapiens abroad, and for a long while before that, the sea has been used and studied. The ancients have left their kitchen middens containing the shells and fish bones from their diets behind them as mute witness to their interests in the ocean and its resources. Long before the dawn of the written word certain sea shells were magic symbols of fertility to the dawning neolithic society and were carried far inland by commercial trails long forgotten about, to be found in the lowest village and cave deposits by today's archaeologists.
Aristotle drew together existing knowledge of the ocean and its inhabitants up to his time, and made many natural history studies and conjectures himself upon his observations of the sea and its living inhabitants.
But it was only about 100 years ago that man began a systematic scientific inquiry about the subsurface ocean with the famous voyage of the Challenger. It was only 65 years ago that a few northern European scientists got together rather informally to found the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Thirty-eight years ago a committee on oceanography appointed by the National Academy of Sciences took note of the modest state of ocean research in the United States. The interest thus aroused caused private benefaction to come forward. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Wood's Hole Institute of Oceanography thus got their starts. Another NAS committee on oceanography reported in much the same vein in 1949, but its report was swamped out of public notice by the Korean war (Anonymous, 1960).
Late in the year 1957 a third committee on oceanography was established by the National Academy of Science. Its report, appearing as recently as 7 years ago, was when American oceanography began to grow. In that year the U.S. expenditure on oceanography was about $30 million. It has now grown to somewhat more than $125 million per year.
Offshoots from this vigorous committee resulted in the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research being formed in the international field by the International Council of Scientific Unions. From this group, spurred on and supported by NASCO, came the organization of the mammoth International Indian Ocean Expedition, the formation of the Office of Oceanography in UNESCO, and finally the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission as a semiautonomous body in UNESCO. Its first session was held as recent as 1961.
So recently has ocean science and inquiry begun to grow. So large and unknown yet is the ocean.
THE OWNERSHIP OF THE OCEAN AND ITS RESOURCES
The other attribute of the ocean, besides it size and our ignorance about it, that is confusing is that nobody owns it. It is true that there are four classes of oceanic salt water as to ownership. The first is the inland waters which are the absolute property of the coastal country; the second is the territorial sea which, for most practical purposes, belongs to the coastal country except that the international community has some liens upon it such as the right of innocent passage through it; the third is a contiguous zone 12-miles wide in which the coastal country has jurisdiction for narrowly prescribed, and limited special purposes ; and the fourth is the rest of the salt water, the most of it, the high seas, which belongs to everybody.
There have been a great many international conferences, arbitrations, and adjudications among the community of nations over the past 35 years aimed at establishing rules of law under which man's activities in these four classes of salt water can be regulated for the convenience of mankind, and to define the boundaries between them. The most important of these was the Conference on the Law of the Sea convened by the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, in the spring of 1958. It resulted in four conventions that codified most aspects of the public law of the sea. These were : Convention on the High Seas; Convention on the Territorial Sea ; Convention on the Continental Shelf; and Convention on Fishing and the Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas.
The first three of these conventions have been ratified by enough countries (22) to put them into force; the fourth requires only 5 more ratifications to come into force also. At the rate they have been coming it should be in force by the end of 1965. Accordingly, for practical purposes, these four conventions can be assumed to represent international law in this field. The two prime questions not solved by them are the breadth of the territorial sea and the authority of the coastal state over fisheries lying on the high seas off its coast.
This is an extremely complex and lively field of law. There are a number of good recent books on it in most principal languages. An excellent recent review of the whole subject in English is McDougal and Burke “The Public Order of the Oceans,” Yale University Press, 1962, 1,226 pages. The following summary of the law is vastly oversimplified but will perhaps serve present purposes.
Inland waters and their contained resources, the resources under them, and the airspace over them belong to the adjacent country in the same manner as does its land space.
The boundary between inland waters and the territorial sea have been pretty well stabilized in the above conventions. This is no longer a very active field of dispute among nations, although a few small places with odd geography, such as the Persian Gulf, may lead to disputes which will further define this legal situation.
The territorial sea, its contained resources, the land under it and the air above, also belong to the adjacent country as does its land space except that, subject to certain specific conditions, the coastal country cannot interfere with, or hamper, the innocent passage of ships through its territorial sea.