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departmental budget submissions. It is also made available to the Bureau of the Budget.
The major departments now have available the program requirements of each of their agencies, including oceanography. They also have available the oceanographic programs of their agencies, as modified and presented in the context of a national program endorsed and recommended by the FCST. In each department, the science areas as a whole must be placed in perspective with the many operational and oth statutory responsibilities.
It is possible, of course, that the general state of the country's economy, the national budget balance, and military emergencies may cause unpredictable shifts of priorities and funding levels in the total executive budget, including oceanography.
Taking all these into account, the next step is consolidation of the departmental programs into a national program and executive budget for consideration by the President.
Finally, the total program and budget, having been reviewed and accepted by the President, is submitted by him to the Congress as the recommendation of his administration for appropriations to carry on the work of the Federal Government for the ensuing year. Final fiscal elements of the NOP are derived from this request for appropriations.
NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA CENTER
Estimate of data backlogs In the 3 years since the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) was established, the question of "cleaning up the data backlog” has been raised frequently, particularly, but not exclusively, with respect to BT'S.
This report resubmits a very rough estimate of the backlogs of oceanographic and related air-sea interaction data originally submitted at the March 26 meeting. Assuredly, many of the figures are simply estimates; no attempt was intended to prepare a strict inventory. A revision of some of the figures was made in line with comments at the March 26 meeting.
Our decision to consider the backlogs from world areas is based on a "national need viewpoint” since this is in the scope of interest of U.S. oceanographic activities. Where data have already been processed, an indication of the volume presently available at the NODC is shown by an asterisk (*).
Air-sea interaction data are a near-immediate problem in "cleaning up the data backlog,” particularly in view of the stepped up national program of ocean-atmosphere research now being planned. A total budget of $4.407 million (fiscal year 1965) has been proposed for this national program without reference to agency breakdown of funds. Of this total, $1.007 million are for data processing. The question remains as to how funds are to be acquired by NODC for its participation in the program.
I. Oceanographic Station Data *Presently available at the NODC—250,000 stations.
Number of Location of data :
100, 000 ICES.
II. Bathythermograph Data *Presently available at the NODC: 1. Analog data--
800,000 2. Digitized data (including IGY and USNUSL data)
175, 000 A. BT data not in NODC analog print archives : 1. Backlog of BT's at NODC as of Mar. 1, 1964-
165, 000 2. Estimate of additional BT's available elsewhere, principally foreign sources.
150, 000 Total.-
315, 000 B. BT data not yet digitized (including backlogged data in “A” above, and the 800,000 analog BT prints), 1,115,000.
C. Review of foreign BT data :
The foreign countries taking large numbers of BT observations are U.S.S.R., United Kingdom, Japan, Netherlands, and Canada. Other countries taking BT'S including Chile, Turkey, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, and many small African countries.
NODC receives most of the British observations as well as the Australian and New Zealand BT's which are forwarded to us via Britain for processing.
NODC receives all Canadian BT data in published form ; digitizing these data probably is the only way they can be made compatible with the NODC format.
Other countries (Japan, Netherlands, Argentina, and U.S.S.R.) send only photographic reproductions of their BT data to us. Again, digitization probably is the only way these data can be worked into the usable NODC archives.
We have received about 500 BT observations from the U.S.S.R. as a result of the ICITA program; this represents the total U.S.S.R. BT observations in the NODC archives.
III. Geological Data *Core, dredge, and grab information-type data digitized and available at the NODC (test sample) <1,000.
A. Cores: Estimated in excess of 20,000 in United States and elsewhere.
(Based on discussions with personnel of U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, Coast and Geodetic Survey, and others as well known and approximated quantities in U.S. Government and educational institutions.)
D. Marine sediment analyses : Estimated in excess of 100,000 analyses (based on information obtained from NAVOCEANO and known from representative institutions such as University of Washington and University of Southern California).
E. Chemical analyses of rocks and sediments (marine): Estimated all types of geochemical analyses in excess of 10,000 (National Science Foundation (Dr. Richard Bader), and from known minimum quantities from such places as SIO, WHOI, Lamont, University of Miami, and Florida State University).
F. Engineering properties of marine bottom material: Estimated in excess of many tens of thousands from private companies and Federal organizations such as U.S. Corps of Engineers (from what was formerly Beach Erosion Board).
IV. Geophysical Data A. Gravity data (marine): Estimated a few tens of thousands of uncollected observations which are not in such gravity repositories such as in DIA, ACIC, and the International Gravimetry Bureau in Paris. There are, in addition, many thousands of commercial observations but most of these are probably of proprietary nature (based on discussions with Mr. Heacock, ONR; Mr. Rice, Coast and Geodetic Survey; and Mr. Cahan and Mr. Smalet, NAVOCEANO).
B. Magnetic data (marine): In excess of 20,000 airborne observation points not yet in central repositories (based on data obtained from Mr. Lorentzen, Mag. netic Branch, Airborne Section, NAVOCEANO).
Also unknown quantities of magnetic data taken on shipboard including strip charts, contoured data, and magnetograms, probably in the order of a few thousand items not at World Data Center A at the Coast and Geodetic Survey. (Mr. Powers Magnetic Branch, Marine Section, NAVOCEANO; officials of World Data Center A for magnetic and other geophysical data feel that one can have no concept of how much data is uncollected.)
C. Seismic data (marine): In excess of 10,000 stations in marine refraction work; in reflection work in excess of several hundred miles of track data. (Literature and from such statements of Ewing (Lamont) that he has completed 180 million miles of seismic reflection investigations. It is unlikely that these data are collected in any central location.)
D. Heat flow (marine) : About 1,000 observations (W. H. K. Lee, secretary of the Heat Flow Committee of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics).
E. Telluric data : In excess of 20,000 hours of readings of such electrical resistivity and conductance measurements (Mrs. Bershad of the information division, NODC).
NOTE.—The Soviets have about 60,000 working geologists compared to about 10,000 in the United States; they are turning out 10,000 to our 1,000 each year. Many of these will pursue oceanographic work. Soviet geoscience data may in the future increase our backlog quantities manifold.
V. Biological Data There are approximately 500 test stations (4,000 cards) on cards in the NODC containing phytoplankton standing crop, zooplankton standing crop, phytoplankton pigment data, benthos data, environmental data, and station index data.
Seven to nine million papers dealing with marine biology have been published since 1900 (estimate based upon the fact that there are approximately 10,000 journals in the field, issued at monthly and quarterly intervals. No estimate of the volume of data “bits” is attempted).
Approximately 100,000 reported observations exist on marine bioluminescence (NAVOCEANO estimate).
Over 5,000 papers exist on the subject of marine borers, exclusive of algae and bacteria (Clapp's bibliography of marine borers).
Over 2,000 papers in the little explored field of marine microbiology (estimate based upon Zobell's text of marine microbiology).
Approximately 500,000 measurements have been made of primary productivity and phytoplankton pigments (25,000 observations were published in 1961 by Doty. These were mostly Pacific Ocean data, collected predominantly by Hawaii and Scripps. Low estimate of other west coast data are 10,000 observations ; east coast data—100,000 observations; Canadian data—25,000 observations; 300,000 observations collected by the Scandinavians, Japanese, and Soviets).
Approximately a half million gross units of data on zooplankton samples. The La Jolla and San Diego Laboratories of the BCF have approximately 150,000 zooplankton volumes over a 12-year period. The Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center in 1 year will receive aliquots of zooplankton samples from 4,041 stations from the Antarctic, Indian Ocean, and the tropical Atlantic. Each aliquot is split into a minimum of 24 taxonomic categories, resulting in the accumulation of data on over 10 million specimens. This volume is expected to increase.
Data on soniferous marine organisms has been accumulating since about 1950, and are steadily and rapidly growing in volume.
VI. Bathymetric Data A. Mr. Jacob Hoffman of the Oceanographic Office (the largest recipient of bathymetric data) stated that NAVOCEANO has approximately 15 million miles of bathymetric track on file. This file is made up of about 20-percent precision track and 80-percent random track information. All 15 million miles of these data are uncorrected. It is estimated that this file is increasing at the rate of 1.5 million miles per year. To determine the number of sounding journals, the figure of 10 journals per smooth sheet is generally accepted.
B. Mr. Ray Carstens of the Coast and Geodetic Survey stated that his office has the following major items on file: Approximately 9,000 inshore-type surveys on file. These data range from the earliest surveys to the most recent with some duplication existing where reruns have been made using modern equipment.
C. The Pacific Ocean survey project, which ranges from the Aleutians to Hawaii, involves 50 final sheets being made up from surveys based on a 10-mile interval.
D. Miscellaneous items include: (1) several tracks from Norfolk to Puerto Rico spaced about 40 miles apart; (2) 8 or 10 recent tracks in the Gulf of Mexico which were made using the new automated shipboard techniques; (3) a survey was done for A.T. & T. by the Coast and Geodetic Survey; the originals were turned over to A.T. & T. but photo copies are on file at the C. & G.S.
E. Mr. Lee of the University of Southern California indicated that institution has a file of approximately 60,000 corrected bathymetric observations.
F. Résumé: Based on these figures, it is estimated that there are approximately 15 million miles of bathymetric track in existence to date. With the rapid de velopment of the equipment, vessels, and interest in the oceans with planned investigations such as the Indian Ocean Expedition, the ICITA, etc., it is estimated that the annual growth of this national file (which includes both domestic and foreign data) will expand at the rate of approximately 8 to 10 million miles with a greater percentage of precision track information being introduced each year.
VII. Air-Sea Interaction Data NOTE.—Many of the following data, even though in processed form, await further checking, editing, and possible merging to make them suitable for use in an expanded air-sea interaction research program.
B. Tidal data: The Coast and Geodetic Survey holds 74,500,000 hourly tide observations; 73 million of these are on excellent listed forms but have not been punched. Averages, harmonics, and mean sea level values have all been computed ; 1,500,000 are discontinuous but probably accurate.
C. Ice data : Ice data exist in exceedingly heterogeneous format and are not processed in any universally usable form.
1. At NODC.-None.
50,000 hours aerial reconnaissance.
Assorted observations by research institutions.
3. Twenty thousand hours of aerial ice reconnaissance by Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Japan. These data are probably held in the British Admiralty. It is believed that U.S.S.R. has at least the equivalent of all these data combined.
It is estimated that the number of cards containing ice data would total 3 million if it were punched.
D. Sea surface temperatures :
1. At NAVOCEANO.-Approximately 5,000 observations obtained on cruises and ASW exercises. Additionally, there are infrared radiation temperatures (IRT) for 1959–63 on rolls of graph paper unchecked and unedited, and include approximately 400,000 miles of track.
2. At NWRC.-33 million marine weather reports punched cards, of which the majority contain sea surface temperatures.
E. Sea surface salinities :
1. NAVOCEANO.—Probably less than 1,000 surface salinities taken during special surveys.
2. USC & GS.—Has 3,000 observations (2,000 are in the Pacific, 1,000 in Atlantic) obtained at their tide gage locations.
3. BCF.-Has observations taken every 4 hours by the Matson Line flagships-Monterrey, Mariposa, Turline.
Honolulu Lab has observations taken once a week at various stations in the Pacific islands.
Seattle Lab and San Diego Lab have additional data.
Total BCF data is in tens of thousands, processed and punched. (Dick Barkley or Mrs. Godfrey, Honolulu, Hawaii, 91181).
5. USCG.-Many thousands of observations from lightships and Coast Guard ships, all processed by SIO and WHOI.
F. Sea and swell data :
G. Meteorological: 1. At NODC.-Weather observations accompanying station and BT data (see backlog for station and BT data).
2. At NWRC.-35 million punched cards of marine weather observations comprising standard ship weather observations of —
(a) Location, date, time.
(0) Wave height and period. Five to eight million of the older cards are punched in obsolete form. All are filed geographically, not synoptically.
(p) 50,000 ocean area RAOB punched cards. These cards vary in format according to source (deck) ; to meet oceanographers' requirements. They require further checking, editing (quality control), and mergering as feasible.