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The noisy culverin o'ercharg'd lets fly,
And bursts unaiming in the rended sky:
Such frantic Aights are like a madman's dream,
And nature suffers in the wild extreme *.

§ 5. If an Hyperbole is too high, it may be qualified by some such insertions, as, Methinks, it seemed, it looked like, if I may so say, or if I may be permitted, or some such cautionary expressions t. Thus Lucius Florus says, “ that " the ships were built with such dispatch in the 66. fecond Punic war, that it seemed as if they “ were not made by men, but that the trees “ were converted into ships by the Gods 1." Mr Cowley softens the Hyperbole, when, describing the Giant GOLIATH, he says,

The * Lord LANSDOWNE's Elay upon unnatural Flights in Poetry. See his Works, vol. i. p. 90.

f Et fi quid periculofius finxiffe videmur, quibusdam remediis præmuniendum eft ; ut ita dicam, fi licer dicere, quod ammodo, permitte mihi fic. Quod idem etiam in iis quæ li. centiùs translata erunt, proderit, quæ non tutò dici possunt. In quo non falli judicium nostrum, solicitudine ipsa manifestum erit. Qua de re Græcum erit illud elegantiffimum, quo præ. cipitur ita, w poetinA NOON TA UTEę Goan. Quintil. lib. viii. cap. 3. $ 3.

Atque etiam fi vereare, ne paulo durior translatio esse vide. atur, mollienda est proposito fæpe verbo; ut fi olim M. Ca. tone mortuo, pupillum fenatum quis reli&um diceret, paulo durius ; fin, ut ita dicam, pupillum, aliquanto mitius eft.

Cicer. de Orat. lib. iii. $41. .." | Ut non naves arte factæ, sed quodam munere Deorum

in naves mutatæ arbores viderentur, Lucu Flori, lib. ii. cap. 2.

The valley now the monster feem'd to fill,

And we methought look'd up t'him from our hill *. And Mr WALLER gives us an example of the same kind in his description of a Whale;',.

Their fix'd javelins in her fides she wears, . .,
And on her back a grove of pikes appears ;. .
You would have thought, had you the monster seen
Thus drest, she had another island been t. ..

The advantage arising from these cautionary expressions, is, that the speaker cannot be accused of a want of understanding, when he makes use of an Hyperbole beyond the limits usually granted to such a Trope ; because, before he introduces it, he intimates his apprehension of its excess by a kind of jealousy concerning its approbation. And this caution is a fort of passport for the Hyperbole, for by making an apology for an expression before you utter it, you prepare the hearers for a reception of what may appear too marvellous, and too nearly the romantic, provided at the same time, according to what we but now, observed, there is but the least degree of truth or resemblance at bottom; but where these are absolutely wanting, there is a dismal vacuity of sense, notwithstanding the greatest pomp of expression, and every device that can possibly be practised. But I cannot say any thing more suitable on this point, than what Dr TRAPP has said before me. “We are not de.

i .. to viating, * Davideis, book iii. .. Ek i . + Waller's Battle of the Summer-Ylands.

“ yiating, says he, from the right rule of think “ ing in Metaphors, Hyperboles, Ironies, nor “ even in equivocal speeches, nor fancies, nor “ poetical fables, when they are properly used si « for there is a wide difference between falfhood - and fiction, between that which is really false, “ if I may so speak, and that which has only the " appearance of what is false. Right reason is “ laid as the foundation of just Tropes and Fic« tions.' Truth fustains the apparent falsity; “ which is so far from destroying, that it adorns " the truth *.”

$ 6. If you make use of more than one Hyperbole in a sentence, as sometimes there may be grace and propriety in an afsemblage of them, take care that they rise and strengthen upon one another ; for otherwise, when you have raised the hearer's expectations, you will disappoint them with a very disgustful defect, and poverty of idea, and this too in a Trope that should be peculiarly strong and animated. Falls are never so great and dangerous as those from an uncommon height. For instance, how mean had it

· been ** Nec Metaphoris, Hyperbolis, Ironicis, imo vel æqui. vocis locutionibus recte ufurpatis, neque etiam commentis & fabulis poeticis, a recta cogitandi norma aberratur. Inter fallitatem enim & fiétionem, inter id quod verè falsum eft (fi ita loqui diceat) & id quod falfi tantum speciem induit, per multum interest. Tropis iftis & fictionibus recta ratio, tan. quam fundamentum, subíternitur ; veritate fuftinetur apparens itła falsitas ; quæ veritatem exornat, non deftruit. TRAPPII Prele£t. Poetic. vol. i. p. 184.. .. .I 2251..

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been in Horace, if he had said that care flew fwifter than the winds, or the stag; or could even keep pace with the horse on full speed ? but how do the ideas rise upon the mind, and gradually augment the velocity of that distressing pafsion which he describes, when he says !

Care climbs the vessel's brazen prow,

Sits fast upon the racer's steed;

Her Aight outftrips the bounding roe,. . . And leaves behind the whirlwind's speed *.

A like instance we may meet with in C1CERO: - What Charybdis is so devouring ? Cha66 rybdis, do I fay? which, if there was such a 6 monfter, was only a single animal. · Even the • ocean itself, believe me, seems scarce capa« ble in so little a time to ingulph such a « quantity of riches, fo variously dispersed, and « at such distant places, as ANTONY has 66 done t."

* Scandit äratas vitiosa naves

Cura ; nec turmas equitum relinquit,'"
Ocyor cervis, & agente nimbos
Ocyor euro..

Horat. Od. lib. ii. od. 16. . + Quæ Charybdis tam vorax ? Charybdin, dico ? quæ îi fuit, fuit animal unum. Oceanus, medius fidius, vix vide. cur tot res, tam diupatas, tam distantibus in locis positas, tam cito absorbere potuiffe. CICER. Phil. ii. § 27.

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The CATACHRESIS considered,

§ 1. A Catachress, its definition. § 2. Upon

what accounts Catachreses are used, or the occa. fions of them. § 3. When they become faulty. $ 4. Mr BLACKWALL'S account of the analogy and relation between the several kinds of Tropes. $. 5. VIDA's fine account of the Tropes.


$1. Catachrefis * is the most licentious as

1 to language of all the Tropes, as it borrows the name of one thing to express another, which has either no proper name of its own; or if it has, the borrowed name is used ei. ther for surprising by novelty, or for the sake of a bold and daring energy.

§ 2. (1) A Catachresis borrows the name of one thing to express another, which has no proper name of its own. Thus QUINTILIAN allows us to say, that we dart a ball or a stake, though darting belongs only to a javelin. In the same manner he permits us to call that a


* From xataxelouat, I abufe.

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