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to represent the deftruction, that faines make upon fuel. If persons will not limit the sense ofi Metaphors by the context, or what appears to be their plain and obvious meaning, a man thall be made to speak quite different from what he really designs. So an iron heart may denote ein

ther courage or cruelty. So a dove may stand in · Metaphor either for innocence or fear: Care there

fore ought to be taken that Metaphors should not be wrested into meanings which were never lo much as imagined. Draw up, when you are examining a Metaphor; at once the limpid Itreain, and do not, under the notion of going deep, plunge lower and lower, again and again, till at last you only gather up the mire from the bottom. Let the first obvious idea be regarded; and if there is manifestly no further similitude, let the matter rest there, and proceed no farther. Some Preachers and Writers may indeed acquire the reputation of being deep by making fuch intärpretations of Scripture-Metaphors and Parables as were never designed, and which it may be their own fancies first conceived, but no compliments are due to them. They rather deserve to be called muddy thán profound, and may be imalore properly refembled to ponds or puddles, whole mire gives them the advantage of being thought deep, whereas in truth it only spreads & veil over their poverty and shallownefs.

$.16. But at the same time I am not unwilling to confefs, that when Metaphors and Simi

lies lies admít a double or a treble resemblance, that they may in the same proportion be accounted beautiful. When God is called a fun in Scripture, mechinks light and life and joy, permanent and unbounded, at once disclofe themselves in the Metaphor. « There is a u double beauty in images, says Mr MELMOTH, so when they are not only Metaphors but Allu

sions. I was much pleased with an instance “ of this uncommon fpecies in a little Poem, in“ titled, the Spleen. The Author of that piece " (who has thrown together more original " thoughts than I ever read in the fame com“ pafs of lines) speaking of the advantage of “ exercise in dissipating those gloomy vapours “ which are so apt to hang upon some minds, so employs the following image; :.

Throw but a stone, the giant dies. . “ You will observe, Orontes, that the Metaz “ phor here is conceived with great propriety of « thought, if we consider it only in its primary 66 view; but when we see it pointing still farther, 6 and hinting at the story of David and Go, “ LIATH, it receives a considerable improvement “ from this double application t."

Mr Addison's comparison of the Duke of MARLBOROUGH in the heat of battle to an Angel presiding over a Itorm, is a comparilon that Sheds a glory over his Hero, not only for his

E 2

courage + Fitz-OSBORNE's Letters, Vol. ij. page 53, 54,

courage, but for his wisdom; and at the same time very happily glances a compliment of the highest kind to, the illustrious. Princess whose, forces he commanded, whose commission he boré, and whose orders he executed. We have an honourable notice and a criticism upon this passage in the Tatler t, which well merits our regard.' « The highest art of man, says the Au“thor, is to possess itself with tranquillity in 6 imminent danger, and to have its thoughts so “ free, as to act at that time without perplexity. “ The ancient Authors have compared this fe« date courage to a rock that remains immove«able amidst the rage of winds and waves ; but 6 that is too stupid and inanimate a similitude, 6 and could do no credit to the Hero. At other “ times they are all wonderfully obliged to a Li" byan Lion, which may indeed give very agree« able terrors to a description, but is no coin“ pliment to the person to whom it is applied. “ Eagles, Tygers, and Wolves, are made use of 6. on the same occasion, and very often with “ much beauty; but this is still an honour done có to the brute rather than the Hero. Mars,

PALLAS, BACCHus, and HERCULES, have each 66 of them furnished very good similies in their « time ; and made doubtless a greater impres“sion on the mind of an Heathen, than they « have on that of a 'modern Reader. But the « ?sublime image that I am talking of, and which “ I really think as great as ever entered into the

“ thoughe + NO 43.

" thought of man, is the Poem called the Cams paign; where the simile of a ministering Angel “ fets forth the most sedate and the most active 6 courage, engaged in an uproar of nature, a « confusion of elements, and a scene of divine « vengeance. Add to all, that these lines com“ pliment the General and the Queen at the " same time, and have all the natural horrors " heightened by the image that was still fresh in “ the inind of every Reader."

'Twas then great MARLB'ROUGH's mighty soul was

prov’d, That in the shock of charging hosts unmov'd, Amidst confusion, horror, and despair, Examin'd all the dreadful scenes of war: In peaceful thought the field of death survey'd, To fainting squadrons sent the timely aid, Inspir'd repuls'd battalions to engage, * And taught the doubtful battle where to rage. " So when an Angel, by divine command, With rising tempests shakes a guilty land (Such as of late 'o'er pale Britannia paft). Calm and serene he drives the furious blast; n And pleas'd th' Almighty's orders to perform, i Rides on the whirlwind, and directs the storm *.

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CHAPTER III.
The ALLEGORY considered.

$ 1. The definition of an Allegory. § 2. Examples

of the Allegory. $ 3. Allegories of two forts, pure and mixed § 4. Mixed Allegories consdered, with instances of them. $ 5. Mixed Allegories defended. $ 6. Great beauty arising from the combination of the Allegory, Comparifon, and single Trope. $ 7. Parables and Fables to be placed under the bend of Allegory.

§ 1. W E have treated fo largely upon the

VV. Metaphor, that we shall have the less to say upon the Allegory, which is so nearly allied to it. An Allegory * is a chain or continuation of Tropes, and more generally of Metaphors t; and differs from a single Trope in the

fame * From adanyopew, I declare another thing.

+ Though an Allegory commonly consists of a series of Metaphors, yet there are instances of Allegories being made up of Metonymies, as that of Terence,

Sine Cerere & Baccho friget Venus. Eunuch. act. 4. sc. 5. Without Ceres and Bacchus, Verus dies. . . And Samson's riddle is made up of Synecdoches ; Out of the cater comes forth meat, and out of the strong fweetness,

Judg.

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