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THE GENERAL NATURE OF . TROPES .CONSIDERED.

$1. The definition of a Trope. $ 2. Tropes may extend to Sentences as well as Words. § 3. The true difference between Tropes and Figures. $ 4. Tropes may become faulty. § 5. They may be fown too thick. $ 6. They may be wild and extravagant. $ 7. They may . be mean and low. $ 8. They may be far-fetched - and obscure. $ 9. They may be barsb and un

suitable. $ 10. They may be finical and fantas. tic. $ 11. They may be filthy and impure : all

of which faults are to be carefully avoided, $ 12. A method to discover the value of Tropes; and an observation concerning the purposes for which they are used.

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$1. Trope * is the changing a word or fen

tence with advantage, from its proper

Signification to another meaning. Thus, for example, God is a Rock t. Here the

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Trope * Derived from teenw, I surn. † 2 Sam. xxiii. 3. The Rock of Israel spake to me, &c.

Trope lies in the word Rock, which is changed from its original sense, as intending one of the strongest works and surest shelters in nature, and is employed to signify that God by his faithfulness and power is the same security to the soul that trusts in him, which the Rock is to the man that builds upon it, or flies for safety to its impenețrable recesses. So our LORD, speaking of HEROD, says, ss Go ye and tell that Fox *.* Here the word Fox is 'alienated from its proper meaning, which is that of a beast of prey and of deep čunning, to denote a mifchievous or crafty Tyrant, or both. In like manner VIRGIL calls the two Scipio's, Thunderbolts of war;"..?

Or the two Sciples, thunderbolts of war, i • That roll?d, their xvin o'er the Libyán coasts to The word Thunderbolt is not to be understood in its origịnal fenfe, but, being transformed into a Trope, signifies the martial terrors, and the rapid and irresistible conquests of those two renowned generals, the SCIPIONES AFRICANI. .

* 192: A Trope may extend farther than a word, and make up a sentence; or an whole sentence may be tropical. This observation QUINTILIAN juftifies, when he calls a Tropë, " a change of a

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word

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* Luke xiii. 326 Aut geminos duo fulmina belli Scipiadas, cladem Libyæ Aneid. vi. ver. 842. ;

word or fentence *". Thus, for instance, if I call an Hero a Lion, the Trope consists in a sin, gle word; but if I say to a person, to shew him the vanity of his labour, that he is wesbing the Ethiopian white, or casting bis seed upon a rock, or bestowing his breath upon the wind, the whole fentences, Substantives, Adjectives, and Verbs, are tropical.

$ 3. The true distinction between Tropes and Figures may be easily conceived. A Trope is a change of a word or sentence from one sense into another, which its very etymology imports ; whereas it is the nature of a Figure not to change the sense of words, but to illustrate, enliven, ennoble, or in some manner or another embellish our discourses: and so far, and so far only, as the words are changed into a different meaning from that which they originally signify, the Orator is obliged to the Tropes, and not to the Figures of Rhetoric.

· $ 4. As Tropes infufe a dignity into our language, and fhed a luftre over our expressions, when they are well-chosen and applied ; lo, on the other hand, when they are mean in themselves, when they are thrown out without judgment, or are in any other respect defective and faulty, they

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render * Tropus eft verbi vel sermonis à propriâ fignificatione in aliam cum virtute mutatio. Quintil. lib. viii. cap. 6. ab

CORRECTIONS..

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P. 30. 1.40. - illuminacum
P.255. 1.20. Hic
P.256. 1.39. Claudiano
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P.295. 1. efface
P.317. 1.19. fnowy fleece
P.317. 1.20. diitaff
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P. 324. l.21. plain
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CHAPTER I.

THE GENERAL NATURE OF TROPES

CONSIDERED.

$ 1. The definition of a Trope. $. 2. Tropes may extend to Sentences as well as Words. $ 3. The true difference between Tropes and Figures. § 4. Tropes may become faulty. $ 5. They may be sown too thick. $ 6. They may be wild and extravagant. $ 7. They may be mean and low. $ 8. They may be far-fetched and obscure. $ 9. They may be harsh and unSuitable. 10. They may be finical and fantastic. $ 11. They may be filtby, and impure: all of which faults are to be carefully avoided. $ 12. A method to discover the value of Tropes; and an observation concerning the purposes for which they are used.. .

$1. Trope * is the changing a word or fenA tence with advantage, from its proper

Signification to another meaning. Thus, for example, God is a Rock t. Here the

в

Trofe * Derived from teenw, I surn. † 2 Sam. xxiii. 3. I be Rock of Israel spake to me, &c.

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