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delightful plain before it, watered with several streams that flow from the neighbouring hill to the south-east, and with the Pactolus, arising from the same, on the east, and encreasing with its waters the stream of Hermus, into which it runs; is now a very pitiful and beggarly village, the houses few and mean ; but, for the accommodation of travellers, it being the road for the cararans that come out of Persia to Smyrna with silk, there is a large chane built in it, as is usual in most towns that are near such public roads, or have any thing of trade: where we took up our quarters ; the Turks refusing to admit us into their houses and lodge us, hearing from our Janizaries that we were Franks. The inhabitants are, for the most part, shepherds, who look to those numerous flocks and herds which feed in the plains.

To the southward of the town, at the bottom of a little hill, the castle lying eastward of them, are very considerable ruins still remaining, which quickly put us in mind of what Sardes was, before earthquakes and war had caused those horrid desolations here; there being six pillars standing, of about seven yards in compasi, and about ten in height; besides several vast stones, of which the other pillars that are thrown down were made, one placed upon the (ther, and so exactly closed in those that stand, as if they were one entire piece, now Jying by in a confused heap; the first row of pillars supporting huge massy stones that lie upon them.

From hence we went up to the castle, which lies eastward; the ascent very steep, in some places almost perpendicular; so that we were forced to take a great compass about to gain the top of the bill whereon it stards; easy enough to be undermined, having no rock to support it; but what might be as well impregnable for its strength, as inaccessible for its height, in former ages. Within the castle we found this inscription upon the chapiter of a pillar:


ON KAIS By which it appears, that it was erected in honour of Tiberius the eriperor, whom Surdes ought to acknowledge as a second founder ; he having taken care to repair the breaches caused by an earthquake, and having given it the forın of a city again, as Strabo has recorded.


Easterly of the castle lie the ruins of a great church; and north of them other vast ruins, the walls still remaining of a very considerable length, with several divisions and apartments; all which take up a great com. pass of ground. Whether it was the chief seat of the governor, or the public court of justice, or the place where the citizens used to converse, at this distance of time, and in so great a confusion wherein it is involved, is difficult to conjecture : but whatever it was when it stood, it must needs have been very stately and glorious, We met with other ruins all along this tract, which made us quickly conclude, that the greatest part of the city lay that way.

The Turks have a mosch, which was formerly a Chris. tian church, at the entrance of which are several cu. rious pillars of polished marble. Some few Christians there are who live among them, working in gardens, and doing such like drudgery; but who have neither church nor priest to assist them, and administer the holy sacraments to them : into such a sad and miserable condition is this once glorious city and church of Sardes, the metropolis of Lydia, now reduced.

On the 10th we set out from $ardes, and arrived at Philadelphia.

(To be concluded in our next.)



From a very interesting and entertaining work, just pub.

lished, entitled “ Memoirs of a Traveller now in Re. tirement, written by himself," vol. v. F there be any one mystery, to endeavour to com

I ,

tainly that of the Trinity; but this is not a reason for doubting of the mystery. We believe in so many things that we cannot comprehend, because they are above our capacity, that being once persuaded of the Christian Religion, by incontestible evidence, the inysteries it presents for the exercise of faith ought not to shake that

Vol. XI. Churchm. Mag. for Aug. 1806. S . faith.

faith. When a philosopher is convinced of the existence of an attractive power' in bodies, and bas calculated its laws, he believes in it without comprehending its nature. Do we know how the soul is united to the body? Have we, however, any doubt of this union? We see a musician at a harpsichord, playing a piece of music: to express the first note he must have the will to place a certain finger upon' a certain key; another finger upon another key, to express the second ; and so successively, to execute a sonata of ten thousand notes. Here are ten thousand acts of the will, which follow each other so rapidly, that individually they are imperceptible. There is no doubt, however, that every touch of a key is, by an express and distinct act of the will, directing the fingers, one after the other, to particular notes. Is it known bow the will thus influences each morement of the finger? Has any one conceived the least idea of the nature of this mechanism? Yet, we do not deny the influence of the will on every movement of the body.

I do not call to mind where I have read the following reasoning, respecting the mystery of the Trinity; but it appears to me so satisfactory, that I cannot refrain from stating it. I am fully persuaded of the necessity of revelation ; that of the Evangelists, founded upon the prophecies, the miracles, and the purity of its doctrine, afford irresistible proofs of its divine origin, and which no other can furnish. I find in the Holy Scriptures this proposition : “There are three witnesses in Heaven, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.” From which, as well as from many other passages in the Scripture, I know that there is a distinction made in the Divinity, under the three names of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: and I find these terms sufficiently proper to express what we know of this mystery. I cannot lind in the Scripture any information respecting the nature of this distinction, except that the Son, is begotten, and that the Holy Spirit preceeds from the Father and Son. I conclude that there must be something more than a mere nominal distinction, since we are baptized in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; whence we may understand something more than if the command had been given in these terms: “Go and baptize all nations in the name

of Jehovah, Elohim, and Adonai.” And if nothing more was intended, than that the Apostles were to baptize in the name or God, this would merely have been a vain


tautology: I conclude, moreover, that there are not three distinct Spirits, or there would be three Gods, contrary to what we are taught both by reason and the Ho. ly Scriptures: from all which I infer, that there is in the Divinity soinethiag more than a nominal distinction, and something less than a distinction of three separate Spirits; and finding throughout each person singly, or all conjointly, named God, and adored as God, I say with St. Athanasius, “I adore the Trinity in Unity."

Although it is impossible to bring this subject abso. lutely within the reach of the human understanding, the following illustration may afford some satisfaction. The sun engenders rays; and froin the sun and the rays pro ceed light and heat. Thus God the Father begets the Son; and from the Father and the Son proceeds the Spirit of light and grace. But as the sun is not before the rays, nor the rays before the light and heat, but they are all simultaneous: thụs neither is the Father before the Son, nor the Father and the Son before the Holy Spirit ; except as to their order or relation to one ano ther, in which respect only the Father is the first person of the Trinity. Among a thousand passages of Scripture which confirm the above arguments, see Genesis i. 1; 26; x. 7. St. Matthew iii. 16, 17; ix 4, 6. St. John, the whole of the first chapter ; ii. 24; xiv. 8, and following; ix. 30, and following; xvi. 13, 14, 15; xx. 28; St Paul to the Romans ix. 5; to the Philippians ii. 5, 6; to the Colossians ii. 9; to Timothy I, jii. 16; first St John v. 7, 20,


[From the same.] WE see the process of a piece of work in the hands of the weaver ; the threads are so regularly arranged, and the colours so disposed, that there results a marvellous production, representing animals, flowers, &c.: may it not be in like manner, that the images of things perceived by the soul, are formed in the brain? The dif. ferent vibrations of fibres, combined in a manner almost infinite, may, suffice to represent, all objects; and the saine variations more faintly repeated, inay perhaps serye S %


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to recal them We may thus compare the soul to a cen. tinel on a bigb tower, whence he descries an immense prospeet; whatever the eye can perceive in the extent of this prospect, the soul inay see perhaps concentrated in a very small space, by means unknown to us. If a man, born deaf, and having, consequently, not even an idea of the organ of hearing, should observe that a person gave orders to men at a distance from him; if he saw them move in consequence of the influence of these orders, he would not comprebend (having no idea of the motive of speech) by what means this single person could move all the rest. It is thus we cannot comprehend the influence of the soul on the body; and it may be by means analogous to the instance just mentioned.



RISE OF THE PURITANS. 'N Sir George Paul's life of Archbishop Whitgift, there

is a trifling circumstance related, which is supposed to have given rise to the Dissenters in the reign of Elizabeth.

The circumstance is this: The first discontentment of Master Cartwright, (a Fellow of Trinity college, Cambridge, and a celebrated disputant) grew at a public act in that university before queen Elizabeth; because Master Preston, (then of King's college, and afterwards Master of Trinity hall) for his comely gesture and pleasing pronunciation, was both liked and rewarded by her Majesty; and himself received neither reward nor commendation, presuming of his own good scholarship. This his 'no small grief he uttered unto divers of his friends in Trinity college, who were also much discontented, be: cause the honour of the disputation did not redonnd unto their college. Master Cartwright, immediately after her Majesty's neglect of him, began to trade into divers opin pions, as that of the discipline, and to kick against her ecclesiastical government; and that he might the better feed his mind with novelties, he travelled to Geneva, where he was so far carried away with an affection of their


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