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in the summer time) and pot far from Foggia-Vecchia, the Phocæa of the ancients, where the Athenians first settled a colony.
The channel as wide as the Thames at Windsor, and deep withal, and not being fordable thereabouts, we were ferried over it, the current being somewhat strong.
We rode along the banks of it towards Chiauskuy, situated about a mile from it, where we made our first conac, or night's lodging, having travelled this day about eight hours.
On the 4th, our day's travel was almost ten hours; our way lying still northward.
On the 5th, having rode through a wood for half an hour, we got into the plain of Pergamus, a most delightful and fruitful plain, several parts of it plowed up; the rest yielding excellent pasturage: it extends itself to a very considerable length to the south-east; in some places about five miles over. On the north-west of the plain we left the river Cetius, which hath but a very small channel, and the Caicus to the southward of it, which we passed over at a mile distance from the city, on a stone-bridge of thirteen arches, the city lying to the north-west of it, where we arrived after four hours,
The Caicus runs with a very smooth stream ; the channel about half the breadth of Hermus, but very apt 10 overflow its low banks on the descent of rain, and the melting of the snow upon the mountains, which makes those plains to be scarce passable for some time of the year. It runs into the bay not far from Elda, a city of Eolis (from whence it hath its denomination), called by the Turks Ayasman, on the western side of it, the scale of Pergamus ; froin wbich it may be distant about twelve or fourteen miles : this river separating Mysia from Æolis.
PERGAMUS. Pergamus, the chief city of Mysia Hellespontica (called by the Turks with a very little variation, Bergamo), is about sixty-four miles from Smyrna, N. N. W. It lies under a very high and steep hill, by which it is sufficiently secured from the cold northern blasts. On the top of it is a castle, built according to the old way of fortification, which the Turks in a manner neglect, it being without any manner of artillery, or other provisions of war; they being altogether free froin the fears of having an enemy in those parts.
From the castle there runs down eastward a good part of the hill, a stone-wall; at the end of which are somc ruins of a fortification, that seems to bave been built for the security of it that way. The ancient stonebuildings, now the ordinary dwelling-houses of the Turks, still continue in several streets: the city, by this means, retaining somewhat of its former glory, amidst those many and vast ruins that lie about it, contrary to the fate of other churches ; most of whose ancient structures are wholly ruined and pitiful Turkish houses built of earth baked in the sun, and beggarly cottages, raised upon their foundations.
We went first to sfe the ruins of a palace (as it is judged to be), which lid in a street to the east part of the city; where we found five pillars of polished marble, of about seven yards in length, the chapiters curiously wrought; in a line equally distant: and, further on, there being a larger space between two other pillars, all which serve now only as so many props to support a wall that is built close to them. They are confronted on the other side of the street with other pillars of the same make, but whose chapiters are broken ; iwo lying along upon the ground.
More eastward, toward the plain, lie very famous ruins of a church, dedicated to St. John, built of brick ; about fifty-six paces in length, and in breadth thirtytwo; the walls of a very great height, two rows of win- , dows on each side. Several pillars fixed within the body of the church, but broken off, and wanting much of their due height; the Turks not willing to be at any pains to clear the earth where they are fixed, and the broken pieces serving their purpose as well; which is to place them at the extremities of their graves: abundance of which we found in their burying-places in our travels wherever we came. Under the east end, a large vault. On each side of the church is a ronnd building: the one exactly agreeing with the other. The doors very high ; opposite to which is a great nichin, or cavity in the wall; a vault underneath, sustained by a great pillar; the foundation strengthened by several arches and pillars; it is eighteen of my paces in diameter within ; the walls very thick.
In the upper part of the city is the rivulet Selinus, whose stream is very swift, running towards the southsouth-east, into the Caicus; over which are built several
stone bridges ; some with two, some with three arches. By the stream, not far from the great church, part of a wall is yet standing of about ninety paces
On the other side of Selinus is a very handsome and large church, formerly called Sancta Sophia, into which you ascend by several stone stairs ; now polluted by the
Turks, and made a mosch. We observed a passage under ground from the castle to the Selinus, by which they supplied themselves with water. Along the side of a hill, from the south-west, are the remainders of an aqueduct.
On a hill, to the west of the city, we met with several vast ruins, with six great arches over a water, which seems to have been formerly a common sewer; and south of this another range of six arches more, with two large rooms. The former of these ruins the Turks call Kizserai, or the Women's Seraglio; telling us that anciently they were kept there, accommodating, according to their rude conception of things, who have not the least knowJedge of antiquity, the customs of former ages to the practice of their emperor at Constantinople, and fancying thein to have been ihe very same.
More southward is another great ruined building, with arches, situated pleasantly upon a hill; from whence we had a good prospect of the city and the neighbouring plain ; hard by which is a theatre that opens to the south; the marks of the steps still remaining. In the declivity of which, almost at the bottoin, is a marble stone, about seven spans in length, and two in breadth, with this inscription, HPAAHE. On the opposite side a marble statue, about two or three feet in the rubbishi, which we caused to be removed by a poor Christian ; this being the only way to preserve it; the Turks being such professed enemies to all human figures, whether painted or in mosaic, or wrought in brass or mable, that it would quickly be defaced and broken if it appeared above ground. As we walked in the streets, we observed several vaults almost every where.
The state of the Christians here is very sad and deplorable, there being not above fifteen families of them: their chief employinent is gardening, by which they inake a shift to get a little inoney to pay their heruche, and satisfy the demands of their cruel and greedy oppressors, and maintain a sad miserable life. They have one church, dedicated to St. Theodore, the bishop of
Smyrna, under whose jurisdiction they are, taking care to send a priest to officiate among them.
Having satisfied ourselves with the view of Pergamus, on Thursday, the 6th, about sun-rise, we set forward in our journey toward Thyatira, our way lying almost due east, repassing the Cetius and Caicus, which last we forded at about two miles distant from the city.
On the serenth, from Bak-hair, after four hours, we came to a village, called Mader-kuy, seated on a little hill, onder which runs a little river, which loseth its waters in the llermus. In the plain before it we saw several pillars (about forty or fifty), some fixt in the ground, and others Vying upon the grass; no other ruins being near. From this village to Thyatira in one hour,
TOYATIRA. Thyatira (called by the Turks Akhifar, or the white castle), a city of Lydia, is distant froin Pergamus about forty-eight miles, almost south-east; situated in a spacious plain, about two miles and an half in compass. Very few of the ancient buildings reinain here; one we saw, which seeins to have been a market-place, having six pillars sunk very low in the ground, about four spans only left above. We could not find any ruins of churches, and enquiring of the Turks about it, they told us there were several great buildings of stone under ground; which we were very apt to believe, from what we had observed in other places, where digging somewhat deep, they inet with strong foundations, that, without all question, have formerly supported great buildings; but the descriptions of the ancients, and the several inscriptions that we found there, put it out of doubt, that this is the true Thyatira: though the Greeks, who are prodigiously ignorant of their own antiquities, take Tyreh, a town twenty-five miles to the south-east of Ephesus, to be the place, being deceived by the nearness of the sound the one has with the other :
upon the same weak pretende, as they have mistaken hitherto Lavtik, a town not far from Ancyra, (Angury, the Turks call it) in Galatia, for Laodicea; when we have most authentick proofs, that it is placed near to the river Lycus, and not far from Hyerapolis. Several inscriptions were found, which mentioned the naine of the city ;--Thyntira. I find, by several inscriptions, that the inhabitants of
this city, as well as those of Ephesus, were, in the times of heathenism, great votaries and worshippers of the goddess Diana. In the corner of a street, near a fountain, upon a broken stone put into a wall, is the following inscription :
APTÉMIAI :.: . OPEIT. To Diana, goddess of the mountains: and in the buryingplace of the Turks (who always bury their dead out of town, and near the high-way, except their emperors and their relations, or' some great inen, as Bassas or others, who have merited well by their services of the empire, who have the privilege to be buried in cities, as Constantinople, Adrianople, or Prusia, near the moschs, or chanes, in their own ground, which they had purchased) to the north-west of the city, where there are a great many stately pillars, which were designed to another use, is a very fair stone, erected to the honour of one of her priestesses, Ulpia Marcella, by the senate and people.
This city has a very great convenience of water, wbich streams in every street, flowing from a neighbouring hill to the eastward of it, about a mile off; there being abore three thousand tive hundred pipes, if the Turks may be credited, to convey it to every part of it. It is populous, inhabited most by Turks, who have eight moschs here; few Christians residing among them; those Armenians we found there being strangers, who came there to sell shashes, handkerchiefs, &c. which they bring out of Persia. They are maintained chiefly by the trade of cotton-wool, which they send to Smyrna, for which commodity Thyatira is very considerable. On the 8th we left Thyatira.
In our way we repassed the. Hermus, over a large stone bridge, that seems to have been built of late years; and after two hours and a half, passing through a village, called Jarosh-kuy, that lies about two miles on this side, we arrived at Sardes, having been eleven hours on horseback: our way all along from Thyatira lying almost due south.
SARDES. Sardes (retaining somewhat of its name still, though nothing of its ancient glory, being called by the Turks Sart) is situated at the foot of the famous mountain Tmolus; on the north side of it, baving a spacious and