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zdly, They do not consider, that the human nature of Christ was bound, by an indispensible necessity, to that holiness which is the image of God : since they compare the whole of Christ's obedience with the undertaking of some office, which a sover. eign confers on his ambassador, or a father on his son. For, as an ambassador, in the quality of a subject, and a son, as such, are bound by the law of nature itself, to perform to a sovereign and a father, an obedience distinct from that which arises from their willingly undertaking this honorary office; so in like manner, the human nature of Christ was and still continues to be, bound to perform obedience to God, in order to maintain this conformity with the holiness of God; which obligation is distinct from his undertaking the mediatorial office. 4thly, They falsely place the essential difference between the obedience of Christ and ours; in that we obey being awed by the threatening of death; but Christ not so. For, that thřeatening does not properly belong to obedience, which really ought not to be extorted from us by the fear of punishment, but to come freely from a reverence to the divine command, and a love to holiness. Our obedience will be no less obedience in heaven when the threatening of eternal death shall no longer have any place. More over, the same law which is proposed to us was the rule of the the life and actions of Christ. But that law had the sanction of eternal death, which it was incumbent on Christ to believe to be just and right ; tending to inform the conscience of God's hatred to sin, and to inflame it likewise with a hatred of sin and unrighteousness. And thus far, after Christ had humbled himself for us, he obeyed the law even under the threatening, and acknowledged the same to be just; and that every threatening of the law, produced in Christ a sense of the wrath of God, when he suffered for us. Sthly, They absurdly pretend, that Christ could, with the Father's consent, decline the office committed to him, or, resign it after he had undertaken it ; as if one should say that a son could have the consent of a virtuous father to make him a liar and guilty of perjury. For God the Father had promised, and solemnly confirmed by oath, that he would procure our salvation by the Son. 6thly, Nor is it less absurd, that they perceive no inconvenience flowing from the nonsusception, or from the resignation of that office, but this one, that in that case Christ would not enjoy, or would forfeit the pro?nised reward; since the very salvation of all the elect, and, which is above all, the whole of the glory of God would thence fall to the ground. I would also fain know, what reward Christ would, according to that hypothesis, have forfeited ; whether the honour of the hypoftatical union, or eternal salvation itself, and the communion
of of the divine love and glory; or whether that sublime glory, in which he is now eminently placed above the rest of the creatures: also, whether it is not blasphemy to say, that either the hypos.. tatical union is dissolved, or that any nature hypostatically uni'ted to the Son of God, can have no share in eternal salvation ; or, if in a state of happiness, has not a more excellent name than the rest of the creatures : in like manner, whether the loss of so great a happiness, can, in an intelligent nature, be, without an eternal sensation of the most bitter anguish: in fine, whether it is not much better and more worthy of God and his Christ, to believe that Christ could not but undertake the office assigned unto him by the Father, and nevér withdraw from it, than run headlong into such absurdities
XXVIII. We shall briefly dispatch the fourth thing remaining; namely, the reward which the Son was to obtain in vir. tue of this covenant, by enquiring first, what reward was promised the Son: and then what relation his obedience had to this reward.
XXIX. The reward promised to the Son, is the highest degree of glory, John xvii. 1. “ Father, glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee.” But this glory may be considered · distinctly with respect to the humanity, to the Deity, and to
the whole person. In the humanity, I observe these three degrees of glory. ist, That, together with the elect, his fellows, Psal. xlv. 7, and co-heirs Rom. viii. 17. it is blessed in the perfect fruition of God. 2dly, That it is exalted above all creatures, on account of the dignity of the hypostatical union. 3dly, That the glory of his Godhead shines forth therein, with a more illu. strious refulgence than in the days of the flesh: so that the man Christ cannot be seen, but he must appear to be the glorious Son of God, and his glory be as “ the glory of the only begots ten of the Father,” John i. 14.
XXX. As the Deity of the Son could not properly be hum, bled, so neither could it acquire any new encrease of glory. For as the humiliation of Christ, with respect to his God-head, con. sisted in this, that under the human form of a servant, which he assumed, the brightness of his glory was covered 'as with a vail : 50 the glorification of the Diet y consists in this, that all the magnificence of the glorious majesty of God beautifully discovers itself, and becomes more conspicuous. And this is what. Christ prayed for, John xvii. 5. “And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine ownself, with tho glory which I had with thee, before the world was.” . XXXI. The whole person of the Mediator obtains for a reward. Ist, that God hath iwspóy woo over raised," highly exalted liim, and given him a name, which is above every name,”
Phil. ix. 2. “ Far above all principality and power, and might and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world but also in that which is to come,” E;h. i. 21. 2dly, That the whole church is given him as his peculiar possession, Ps. ii. 8. Is. iii. 10. And that he himself is given as head over all things to the church, Eph. i. 22. and all power given bim in heaven and in earth, Mat. xxviii. 18. that he may govern all things, for the benefit of the church. 3dly, That, on account of the most infinite union of the church, as his mystical body, with him. self he receives all those gifts, which he merited, and on that account are bestowed on the elect. For the church united to Christ, the body, together with the head, is called Christ, 1 Cor. xii. 12. And thus literally run the words, Ps. lxviii. 18. thou hast received gifts in men, as the Septuagint also renders them, inabos dépce?c év åreçás oss. Instead of which the Apostle, Eph. iv. 8. not literally, but giving the sense of the words, says, idwet douleta TO:s av@púxois, be gave gifts to men. For, as Christ is supposed to receive them, when they are given to his members, so he gives his members what he re. ceived of the Father, Acts ii. 33. therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and baving received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, be hath shed forth this which ye now see and hear. .
XXXII. The obedience of Christ bears to these blessings, not only the relation of antecedent to consequent, but of merit to reward: so that his obedience is the cause, and the condition now fulfilled, by virtue of which he has a right to the reward, as several express passages of Scripture declare ; Ps. xlv. 7. tbou lovest righteousness and hatest wickedness, (which is a description of the obedience of Christ) is 50, THEREFORE God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows; which words contain the reward, intimating the most joyful en. trance of Christ into the kingdom of his glory and delight. The relation of obedience to the reward is set forth by the word therefore, which denotes the cause, and not a mere antecedent, In like manner, Is. liii. 12. 735, THEREFORE will I divide him a portion with the great, and be shall divide the spoil with the strong, 7wx nnn BECAUSE he hath poured out his soul unto death. Where the relative particles, wx non and a expressly indicate that commutative justice, whereby the reward due, bears a reciprocal relation to the obedience performed, Phil. ii. 8, 1. he became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross: διο και ο θεος αυτον υπερυψωσι, WHEREFORE God also bath highly eaalta bit. Heb. xi. 2, dvận 7%; Taxlets duri xa ; usiative savaby, ube, 37498. tbe joy that was.set before him, endured the cross. Where
lled XIV. The peas the anteFor everse. And the to his
there is an express commutation, or interchange of obedience and reward.
XXXIII. And the thing speaks for itself. For as there is a covenant between the Father and the Son ; when thou shalt make bis soul(if the soul of the Son shall devote himself) an offering for sin, Is. liü. 10. upon performing the condition, the Son acquired a right to the reward, and so has a merit according to the covenant. Nay, as it is not the obedience of a mere man, but of Christ God-map, an infinite person, it is also of an infinite value, consequently bears the justest proportion to the greatest corresponding glory; and thus far it is a merit of condignity, as it is called; such as no mere creature is capable to acquire. .
XXXIV. The passages of Scripture which represent the humiliation of Christ as the antecedent to the subsequent glory, are not contrary to this doctrine. For every cause is an antecedent, though every antecedent is not a cause. And the merit of Christ for himself is so far from being prejudicial to his merit for us, that on the contrary, they are inseparably conjoined. For if he merited for himself, in order to be the head of the elect in glory, and to receive gifts for them, he certainly at the same time, merited for the elect, in order to their being glori. fied, and enriched with gifts becoming the mystical body of Christ. Neither by this doctrine is the excellency of the love of Christ towards us diminished, tho' in his state of humiliation, he had likewise an eye to his own exaltation. For he might have been glorious as to himself, without going to it by this way of death, and the pains of hell. Besides he looked up. on his own glory as the beginning and cause of ours, and whose fruit was all to redound to us. And it was the highest pitcha of love, that he would not be glorious without us. Nor should the word xapıĝiolaí, given, which the Apostle uses, Phil. ii. 9. be urged too closely, as if the rewards there mentioned were of mere grace freely given to Christ, without any regard to his obedience, as the cause of his right or title to them. For Paul there expressly asserts, that they were given to Christ on account of his obedience. And that term does not always denotę mere grace. Hesychius, that very excellent master of Greek, explains it by Spar là xsxapoopiva, to do what is acceptable. But those things also are called acceptable, which aredue: the Greeks say, Oséis rigaliojina Tourive to do what is acceptable to the gods. Whence the same thing, which here, in respect to Christ is called xàgorje, is Isaiah xlix. 4. called his work, or the re. ward of his work, adjudged to him by the just judgment of God. “ My judgemntis with the Lord, and my work with my God.” So that the plain meaning of this passage in Paul is this; because
Christ submitted himself to the Father, by free or voluntary obedience, the Father therefore also rewarded him by giving him a name above every name.
:: CHA P. IV.
Of the Person of the Surety. I. HAVING with some degree of care explained the nature
10 of the covenant between the Father and the Son, it is fit we treat a little more distinctly of the surety himself, concern. ing whom these are the principal particulars ; and first we shall consider the Person of the SURETY, and what is requisite to constitute such : and then that SATISFACTION which he undertook to make by his suretiship; the TRUTH, NECESSITY, EFFECTS, and EXTENT, of which we shall distinctly deduce from the Scriptures.
II. These four things are required as necessary to the Person of a SURETY, that he might be capable to engage for us. Ist, That he be true man, consisting of a human soul and body. 2dly, That he be a righteous and holy man, without any spot of sin. 3dly, That he be true and eternal God. 4thly, That he be all this in the unity of person. Of each severally and in order.
III. That our surety ought to be true man, is what Paul declares more than once, Heb. ii. 10, 11, 16, 17. Expats, it became him, it behoved him, it was becoming God that he who sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, be all of one, of one hu-, man šeed, so that they might call each other brethren. In all thing's it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, in order to be their Goel or kinsman-redeemer : for verily he took not on him the nature of angels, but he took on him the seed of Abraham, (did not take upon him to deliver angels, but to deliver the seed of Abraham.)
IV. This assumption, or taking, does not seem to me to denote the assuming human nature into personal union, but the assuming of the elect, in order to their deliverance. For, ist, The causal conjuction for, indicates, that the Apostle uses this middle term (or this as an argument] to prove, what he had said v. 14. about the partaking of flesh and blood, and which v. 17. he deduces by the illative particle, wherefore. But the middle term must be distinguished from the conclusion: and so there is no tautology in the Apostle's very just inference. 2dly, Since the assumption of the human nature was long before the
taking of these, wherefore.ich; and so there,