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FRI. Bliss be upon you! Tell me, good my friend, What torch is yond', that vainly lends his light To grubs and eyeless sculls? as I discern, It burneth in the Capels' monument.

BAL. It doth so, holy sir; and there's my master, One that you love.

FRI.

BAL.

Who is it?

Romeo.

Full half an hour.

FRI. How long hath he been there?
BAL.

FRI. Go with me to the vault.
BAL.

I dare not, sir:

My master knows not, but I am gone hence;
And fearfully did menace me with death,

If I did stay to look on his intents.

FRI. Stay then, I'll go alone :-Fear comes upon

me;

O, much I fear some ill unlucky thing.

BAL. As I did sleep under this yew-tree here, I dreamt my master and another fought', And that my master slew him.

FRI. Romeo?-Advances. Alack, alack, what blood is this, which stains The stony entrance of this sepulchre ?— What mean these masterless and gory swords

7 I dreamt my master and another fought,] This is one of the touches of nature that would have escaped the hand of any painter less attentive to it than Shakspeare. What happens to a person while he is under the manifest influence of fear, will seem to him, when he is recovered from it, like a dream. Homer, book 8th, represents Rhesus dying fast asleep, and as it were beholding his enemy in a dream plunging a sword into his bosom. Eustathius and Dacier both applaud this image as very natural; for a man in such a condition, says Mr. Pope, awakes no further than to see confusedly what environs him, and to think it not a reality, but a vision,

Let me add, that this passage appears to have been imitated by Quintus Calaber, xiii. 125:

Πότμον ὅμως ὁρόωντες ὀνειρασιν. STEEVENS.

To lie discolour'd by this place of peace?

[Enters the Monument. Romeo! O, pale !-Who else? what, Paris too? And steep'd in blood ?-Ah, what an unkind hour Is guilty of this lamentable chance!—

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The lady stirs 3.

[JULIET wakes and stirs. JUL. O, comfortable friar! where is my lord? I do remember well where I should be,

And there I am:-Where is my Romeo?

[Noise within. FRI. I hear some noise.-Lady, come from that

nest

Of death, contagion, and unnatural sleep9;
A greater Power than we can contradict
Hath thwarted our intents; come, come away:
Thy husband in thy bosom there lies dead1;

8 The lady stirs.] In the alteration of this play now exhibited on the stage, Mr. Garrick appears to have been indebted to Otway, who, perhaps without any knowledge of the story as told by Da Porto and Bandello, does not permit his hero to die before his wife awakes:

"Mar. Jun. She breathes, and stirs,

"Lav. [in the tomb.] Where am I? bless me! Heaven!
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'Tis very cold, and yet here's something warm.

"Mar. Jun. She lives, and we shall both be made immortal. Speak, my Lavinia, speak some heavenly news,

66

"And tell me how the gods design to treat us.

"Lav. O, I have slept a long ten thousand years."What have they done with me? I'll not be us'd thus: "I'll not wed Sylla; Marius is my husband." MALONE. and unnatural sleep ;] Shakspeare alludes to the sleep of Juliet, which was unnatural, being brought on by drugs. STEEVENS.

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Thy husband in thy bosom there lies dead ;] Shakspeare has been arraigned for departing from the Italian novel, in making Romeo die before Juliet awakes from her trance; and thus losing a happy opportunity of introducing an affecting scene between these unfortunate lovers. But he undoubtedly had never read the Italian novel, or any literal translation of it, and was misled by the poem of Romeus and Juliet, the author of which departed from the Italian story, making the poison take effect on Romeo before Juliet awakes. See a translation of the original pathetick

And Paris too; come, I'll dispose of thee
Among a sisterhood of holy nuns :
Stay not to question, for the watch is coming 2;
Come, go, good Juliet,-[Noise again,] I dare stay
no longer.

[Exit.
JUL. Go, get thee hence, for I will not away.-
What's here? a cup, clos'd in my true love's hand?
Poison, I see, hath been his timeless end :-
O churl! drink all; and leave no friendly drop",
To help me after ?—I will kiss thy lips;
Haply, some poison yet doth hang on them,
To make me die with a restorative.
Thy lips are warm!

[Kisses him.

I WATCH. [Within.] Lead, boy:-Which way? JUL. Yea, noise ?-then I'll be brief.-O happy dagger! [Snatching ROMEO's Dagger +

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narrative at the conclusion of the play, in a note on the poem near the end. MALONE.

2

Stay not to question, for the WATCH is coming;] It has been objected that there is no such establishment in any of the cities of Italy. Shakspeare seldom scrupled to give the manners and usages of his own country to others. In this particular instance the old poem was his guide:

"The weary watch discharg'd did hie them home to sleep." Again :

"The watchmen of the town the whilst are passed by,
"And through the gates the candlelight within the tomb
they spy." MALONE.

In Much Ado About Nothing, where the scene lies at Messina, our author has also introduced watchmen; though without suggestion from any dull poem like that referred to on the present occasion.

See, however, Othello, Act I. Sc. II., in which Mr. Malone appears to contradict, on the strongest evidence, the present assertion relating to there being no watch in Italy. STEEvens.

3 O churl! DRINK all; and LEAVE no friendly drop,] The text is here made out from the quarto of 1597 and that of 1599. The first has

"Ah churl! drink all, and leave no drop for me!" The other:

"O churl! drunk all, and left no friendly drop,

"To help me after?" MALONE.

• Snatching Romeo's dagger.] So, in Painter's translation of

This is thy sheath; [Stabs herself;] there rust, and let me die

[Falls on ROMEO's body, and dies.

Enter Watch, with the Page of Paris®.

PAGE. This is the place; there, where the torch doth burn.

Pierre Boisteau, tom. ii. p. 244: "Drawing out the dagger which Romeo ware by his side, she pricked herself with many blowes against the heart." STEEVENS.

It is clear that in this and most other places Shakspeare followed the poem, and not Painter, for Painter describes Romeo's dagger as hanging at his side; whereas the poem is silent as to the place where it hung:

"And then past deadly fear (for life ne had she care,)

“With hasty hand she did draw out the dagger that he ware.” But our author, governed by the fashion of his own time, supposes it to have hung at Romeo's back :

"This dagger hath mista'en-for' lo! his house

"Is empty on the back of Montague." MALONE.

S - there RUST, and let me die.] Is the reading of the quarto 1599. That of 1597 gives the passage thus:

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'Ay, noise? then must I be resolute.

"Oh, happy dagger! thou shalt end my fear;
"Rest in my bosom: thus I come to thee."

The alteration was probably made by the poet, when he introduced the words,

"This is thy sheath." STEEVENS.

6 From hence to the conclusion, it is thus given in quarto 1597 :

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"Enter Watch.

Capt. Come, look about; what weapons have we here? "See, friends, where Juliet, two days buried,

"New bleeding, wounded; search and see who's near;

"Attach, and bring them to us presently.

"Enter one with the Friar.

"1. Captain, here's a friar, with tools about him,

"Fit to open a tomb.

"Capt. A great suspicion; keep him safe.

Enter one with Romeo's man.

"1. Here's Romeo's man.

"Capt. Keep him to be examined.

1 WATCH. The ground is bloody; Search about the churchyard :

Go, some of you, whoe'er you find, attach.

"“ Enter Prince, with others.

[Exeunt some.

"Prin. What early mischief calls us up so soon?

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Capt. O noble Prince, see here

"Where Juliet, that hath lain entomb'd two days,
"Warm and fresh bleeding; Romeo and county Paris
"Likewise newly slain.

"Prin. Search, seek about to find the murderers.

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"Enter old Capulet and his wife.

Cap. What rumour's this that is so early up? "Moth. The people in the streets cry Romeo, "And some on Juliet: as if they alone

"Had been the cause of such a mutiny.

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Cap. See, wife, this dagger hath mistook : "For (lo!) the back is empty of young Montague, "And it is sheathed in our daughter's breast.

"Enter old Montague.

"Prin. Come, Montague, for thou art early up, "To see thy son and heir more early down.

"Mont. Dread sovereign, my wife is dead to-night,

"And young Benvolio is deceased too:

"What further mischief can there yet be found?

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Prin. First come and see, then speak.

"Mont. O, thou untaught, what manners is in this,

To press before thy father to a grave.

"Prin. Come, seal your mouths of outrage for a while,

"And let us seek to find the authors out

"Of such a heinous and seld' seen mischance.

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Bring forth the parties in suspicion,

"Fri. I am the greatest, able to do least.

"Most worthy Prince, hear me but speak the truth.
"And I'll inform you how these things fell out.
66 Juliet, here slain, was married to that Romeo,
"Without her father's or her mother's grant :
"The nurse was privy to the marriage.
"The baleful day of this unhappy marriage
"Was Tybalt's doomsday: for which Romeo
"Was banished from hence to Mantua.

"He gone, her father sought, by foul constraint,
"To marry her to Paris: but her soul

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(Loathing a second contract) did refuse

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