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the inmate speedily become insensible. Afterwards fig. 85, a; but a lateral view should show the pin the coup de gráce may be given to the insect by slightly slanting forwards, as in fig. 86,6. Pins pricking it under the thorax with the nib of a made for the purpose in numerous sizes are sold by steel pen dipped in a saturated solution of oxalic Mr. Cooke, of New Oxford Street. acid. If we are smokers, a puff of tobacco may Setting out moths and butterflies is an operation be blown into the box with like result. If we which, if skilfully performed, adds much to the are destitute of any apparatus, and brimstone beauty of the future specimens. The method of lucifers for the purpose of suffocating our captures setting most popular is carried out by means of under an inverted tumbler cannot be obtained saddles and braces. These so-called saddles are at some roadside inn, we must fall back on pieces of cork rounded as in the sectional figure, a the barbarous practice of pinching the thoraces of such as cannot be carried home in boxes. At home we shall find the laurel.jar and ammoniabottle the most useful. The former is made by partially filling a large wide-mouthed bottle or jar
Fig. 87. Cork Saddle for setting out insects. . with cut and bruised dry leaves of young laurel: if any dampness hang about them, we shall bave the
groove being cut out for the reception of the bodies mortification of seeing our specimens become mil
of the insects: they are generally strengthened by dewed. The latter consists in adding a few lumps
| a strip of wood, upon which they are glued. Braces of carbonate of ammonia, or some drops of strong
are wedge-shaped pieces of card or thick noteliquid ammonia, on a sponge, to the bottle in which
paper, the thick end strengthened, if necessary, with our captures, with each box lid slightly opened, have
a disk of card fixed by shoemaker's paste, and been placed. But it must be borne well in mind,
pierced with a pin through it, as shown in fig. 88. firstly, that ammonia is injurious to colours of most green insects; and secondly, that if the specimens be not well aired after having been thus killed, the pins with which they are transfixed will become britile and break. Insects should be left in the ammonia for several hours, and are then in the most delightful condition for setting out.
To pin an insect properly is a most important procedure. The moth, if of moderate dimensions, may be rested or held between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, while the corresponding
Fig. 88. Braces for setting out.
The mode of application of these appliances is ci ili
beautifully shown in fig. 90.* But before these straps can be applied, the wings must first be got into position by means of the setting-needle and setting-bristle, which are tbus manipulated; the
setting - bristle, by the way, being formed by Fig. 85. Front View of properly pinned insect.
fixing a cat's whisker and a pin into a piece of
cork, at the angle shown in fig. 89:- After the digits of the right hand operate by steadily pushing a pin through the thorax, bringing it out between thc hind pair of coxæ until sufficient of the pin is esposcd beneath to steady the insect in the cabinet.
tilted into its place by means of the setting-needle, which is merely a darning-needle with a handle; and simultaneously it is to be held down by the öristle; then a small brace should be applied to the costa of the fore-wing. Next the hind-wing should in like manner be adjusted, and as many braces as are considered necessary to keep the wings in this place should be added. Lastly, the right side of the insect should be treated in a similar way.
Fig. 90. Moth set out on cork saddle.
A very useful mode of setting, invaluable when We are destitute of saddles, is known as "fourstrap" setting, and is well explained in fig. 91.
whether mity or not, to quarantine, by which is meant their detention for a few weeks in a box the atmosphere of which is impregnated with some vapour destructive to insect life; such as that of benzole. Our own specimens we should kyanize by touching the bodies of each with a camel's-bair brush dipped in a solution of bichloride of mercury of the strength six grains to the ounce of spirits of wine,- no stronger,
As for mould, it is best destroyed by the application of phænic or carbolic acid, mixed with three parts of ether or spirit. As preventives, the specimens should be kyanized as above. Caution in the use of laurel as a killing agent must be exercised, and the collection must be kept in a dry room.
Grease may be removed by soaking the insects in pure rectified naphtha or benzole, even by boiling them in it if necessary. When the bodies only are greasy, they may be broken off, numbered, and treated as above. After the grease is thoroughly softened, the insects should be covered up in powdered pipeclay or French chalk, which may be subsequently removed by means of a small sable brush. As a precaution against grease, it is advisable to remove the contents of the abdomina by slitting up the latter beneath with a finely-pointed pair of scissors before they are thorough-dry, and packing the cavities with cotton-wool. The males, especially of such species as have internal feeding larvæ, should be thus treated.
Some prefer to keep their collections in wellmade store-boxes, which possess many advantages over the cabinet; for example, they may be kept like books in a bookcase, the upright position rendering the contents less liable to the attacks of mites; they are more readily referred to, and are more portable, and they admit of our gradually ex. panding our collections to any extent. Cabinets, on the other hand, are preferred by many, for the reasons that they are compact and generally form a handsome article of furniture; moreover, good cabinets are made entirely of mahogany, which is the best wood for the purpose; deal, and other woods containing resinous matter, having a decidedly injurious effect on the specimens. As a preservative, there is, after all, perhaps nothing better than cam. phor; but it should be used sparingly, or its tendency will be to cause greasiness of the specimens.
In this case the lower straps are first put into such a position, that when the insect is placed over them, the middle of cach of the coste will rest upon them; then the wings are got into posi. tion, and the second pair of straps are applied over the wings, the latter retaining their position through the elasticity of their costæ: two more straps are generally added to secure the outer borders of the wings, as shown in the drawing; but these, though advantageous, are not absolutely necessary. The saddles, with their contents, should be kept in a drying-house, which is a box adapted for their reception, and freely ventilated, until the specimens are thoroughly dry, when the latter may be cautiously removed, and transferred to the collection.
To preserve our collection from decay, considerable care and attention is necessary. In the first place no insect which is in the least degree suspected of being affected by mites, or mould, or grease, should upon any account be admitted to our collections. It is best to be on the safe side and submit every insect received from correspondents,
ART IN ITS RELATION TO NATURAL
PAINTINGS, and works of art generally, bare
1 not hitberto been introduced into SCIENCEGOSSIP, but, on reflection, it appears that the fine arts would be advanced by the application of science to them. Anatomy, perspective, the
geological structure of rocks, the principles on neck of a lamb, and a nosegay of wild flowers in which water finds its level and also is conformable her left. No. 130, “Passing Clouds, near Capel to the rotundity of the earth, natural history, and Carig, North Wales," B. W. Leader. For the especially botany, are needful for the accomplish same reason we call attention to this picture as very ment of artists in their several departments. In beautiful, and geologically correct, and werepeat our fact, truth, which science asserts, is the soul of conviction, that the more closely and scientifically painting and poetry alike; and no real and sub the geological features are represented, the greater stantial feeling of grace or beauty, in any of her will be the pictorial charm. Time will not allow forms, can be divorced from it.
me to specify the many excellent pictures in which We shall, therefore, consider it to be strictly | the rules of science may be said to be faithfully within the province of SCIENCE-Gossip to endea carried out. I will only mention the “Yew-trees of vour to eliminate from every branch of art the enor Borrowdale," by E. A. Pettitt, a most effective mities which have been perpetrated under her painting, but in which the natural colours are guise, such as horses galloping with their four legs slightly departed from. No. 658,"My Punishment distended like rocking-horses, flowers and plants is greater than I can bear," G. F. Watts, R.A. mere apologies for their originals, &c.
The anatomical correctness of this gigantic work In commencing the application of science to is, perhaps, open to censure, and we do not regret works of art, we propose to deal very gently with that it is deposited in the Academy, where it will those exhibited this year at the Royal Academy, be out of sight and to do little more than indicate some marked errors. No. 25, by Sir E. Landseer, R.A., is a charming but rather sketchy portrait of Lady A FEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE SMOOTH Emily Peel, seated, with her dogs, deservedly
NEWT. favourites, courting her notice on either side. The
(Lissotriton punctatus.) artist has paid little attention to the flowers at her feet, as little apparently as the dog which in its haste ON the 29th of May last (1871) I obtained a to reach its mistress has upset the vase which female Smooth Newt (Lissotriton punctatus), contained them. This is a pretty episode ; but it and observing it to be big-bellied, conjectured that, is vain for Sir Edwin to divert our attention from it had not yet laid its eggs. In this I was not mis the flowers by the charming portraiture of the lady. taken, but, notwithstanding my close attention, Nature seems to assert her rights and to claim for was unable to discover it in the act of depositing her flowers a fair delineation, not as photographs, them. This, probably, was owing to my ignorance nor as principals in the picture, but such as is of the manner in which they were deposited, my truthful and pleasing, and not to leave it necessary idea being that they were laid in some such manner to ask what they are intended for. No. 223, as those of the frog or toad-viz., in spawn. The "Hearts are Trumps : Portraits of Elizabeth, Diana, way in which they are deposited, and their further and Mary, Daughters of Walter Armstrong, Esq.," development into the tadpole phase of their existJ. E. Millais, R.A. This gorgeous painting, per. ence, form the subject of this short paper. haps the best that the artist has ever produced, On receiving the Newt it was put into a large is entirely free from the defects of No. 25. The rectangular aquarium, containing about three gal. exquisite flowers on the one side are most artistic | lons of water, and having in its centre a piece of cally set off by the screen on the other, under artificial rockwork in the form of an arch. Disposed which the ladies are seated at their game of cards. throughout were a number of plants of Vallisneria As they are portraits, they do not admit of the spiralis, Callitriche verna, and C. autumnalis ; also criticism which would attach to one of them at least, some water-moss upon the rockwork and at its who holds the king of hearts, but does not seem base. I frequently observed the Newt among the to be delighted, scarcely contented, with her good plants, but nothing else being noticed, I began to Juck. The sister, who holds the fewest hearts, i think I had been mistaken in my supposition of its appears the most contented. Had the subject been being an impregnated female; and it was not until ideal, it would have been open to criticism on this the 17th of June that anything transpired to con. score; but, as it is, it is difficult to find fault with firm my first impression. On the afternoon of that it, and we anticipate that it will be one of the day, however, while watching the aquarium, which, chief attractions in the exhibition. No. 6, “In the besides the Newt, contained a few minnows, loaches, Valley of Rocks, North Devon,” T. G. Cooper. We | and a large number of frog-tadpoles, my eye caught have much pleaure in singling this out among many something darting about, scarcely visible but for as a faithful representation of the geological struc- the bright golden eyes which ever and anon glanced ture of the rocks, at the same time that the artist like gems, as the colourless sprite darted hither and proves that he is alive to the sentimental by his thither. It must ultimately have fallen a victim to placing the right hand of the shepherdess upon the I some of the fishi, as I shortly after lost sighit of it,
never again to see it; or, indeed, any other in this consisting of several points directed outward and aquarium. Subsequent experience proved that the backward, and so transparent as barely to be minute newt-tadpole was included in the frog. visible. From the same point, along the centre of tadpole's bill of fare, which, by the way, is very | the back, ran a fin, more transparent stills0 comprehensive, a disabled member of its own transparent as to be invisible, except in certain community not being objected to. The aquarium lights, and with the aid of a magnifying-glass. had a few days previously been cleaned out, the | Development of Germ.-It was inclosed in a globular plants thinned, and a few sprigs of Callitriche verna, jelly-like substance, which expanded at its growth ; which had some of their leaves folded down, and kept in that position, I had placed in a small bottle with water. On looking at them I found the leaves a little separated, and within the enfoldure
Fig. 93. Showing different stages in development of ova,
from 1 to 4, &c.
Fig. 92. Cullitriche verna, with leaves containing ora of Newt.
something resembling a small caterpillar snugly coiled up in its cocoon. Suspecting what they really were, I kept a close watch on their development, and was not disappointed, as they proved to be the young of the Newt, and were curious and interesting objects for study. The following is my diary of observation :
June 12 (11 a.m.).- One of the germs, which I suppose to be those of the Smooth Newt, was hatched. It was about three-eighths of an inch long; head obtuse, rounded; eyes large and brilliant, black, with bright golden irides; colour of body, pale yellow or amber; two dark-coloured streaks, commencing on head, and combining at the point where the tail commences, were continued to its end, which was as fine as a needle's point. Under neath was a dark streak, formed, I think, by the intestines; behind the head, on either side, was a delicate fringe-the branchia (breathing organs),
the two halves of the leaf separating at the same time, and showing the tadpole neatly coiled up, with its head and tail in close proximity. From the position and appearance of the eggs, I should suppose them to be covered outwardly with a glutinous substance, which, when the egg was laid in the fold of the leaf, and the halves compressed, adhered to them, thus keeping the leaf in that position. As the tadpole increased in size, however, it required more space, and with its growth the two portions of the leaf separated, thus allowing the water a freer access to the egg, and determining its shape, which appeared to be that of a perfect sphere. The furthest developed one was, in its outer part, the half of a perfect sphere; while the inner half, still in the double of the leaf, was compressed and elongated, giving to the whole egg a pear-shape. See fig. 93, a, &c.
June 23.-The tadpole occasionally changed its position in the egg; the head and tail, however, always keeping in same position, near together. After twice rapidly changing its position in the egg, the head of the tadpole burst the envelope, and, after a few moments' rest, it dropped slowly out, and resting with its head between a leaf and the side of the bottle, was in a most favourable postare for observation. I could now see the branchiæ and fin with the unassisted eye, and found that, in addition to the back-fin, another ran along the under-side of the tail from the rent. After remaining in this position for a few minutes, it darted away stickleback-like. Immediately after its coming out, the egg collapsed, and on examina
tion I found it to consist of a transparent substance, indeed a treasure. On no subject in marine zoology much resembling gelatine, and no larger (when out have more mistakes been made than in the natural of the water) than an ordinary-sized pin's-head; history of Corals. For years past some of the best thus favouring the opinion of its expansion by the naturalists in all countries have been working on absorbing of water during the development of the them. Milne-Edwards, Haines, Darwin, Duncan germ.
Dana, Agassiz, Pourtales, and others have contrJune 24.-Those hatched lay quietly at the bot. buted memoirs. Our fossil corals have been better tom of the water, rarely moving unless disturbed. illustrated than our recent, as witness the magnifi. Two more developed, both occasionally moved, the cent volumes of the Palæontographical Society. movement being a turning of the body half, or more No other class of marine objects throws such light than half, round in the egg; it, however, was so over past history, over the temperature and other quick as to elude defining. June 28.- All the eggs physical conditions of primeval seas, as corals. With now hatched. July 2.-All the young got fore-feet, Darwin's wonderful generalizations before us, out which were very pale and transparent, so much so,
| of the fossil corals of our Silurian and carboniindeed, as barely to be visible. The largest was ferous limestone hills it becomes tolerably easy to nearly half an inch long, the shortest three-eighths describe the plıysical geography of the seas in ditto. July 5.-All the young nearly of the same which those limestones were deposited. And yet, size. The head, legs, feet, and brancbiæ were all with all the importance attached to corals, and in covered with minute dark-coloured dots; those on spite of all that bas been written about them, as the head brown, as were also the two streaks, well as the erroneous notion abroad concernwhich, running the whole length of the body, then ing these interesting organisms, we have had combined and continued in one to the end of the hitherto no manual specially devoted to their contail. These were, as I afterwards found, composed sideration. The student has been forced to wade of a multitude of these minute dots. The lead was toilsomely through the scientific memoirs of his large, and branchiæ more developed; the legs own and other tongues, if haply he might find what longer, and toes long in proportion, the middle he sought after. Hence it is that we hail this one (only three visible) being much the longest, volume as a boon to the student; as a splendid and almost equal in length to the rest of the leg; manual on coral-zoology, finely illustrated, and the whole not exceeding 2-12ths of an inch. The written by a man who perhaps knows more about germs had the power of bending the body to either the practical natural history and literature of the side, and also of elevating the posterior part. When subject than any other philosopher, they moved, they did so by quick, short starts for Professor Dana's work enters minutely into the ward. July 11.—No observable change. July 18. relations between the Hydroids, Bryozoans, &c., and -A little larger, and tail.fin spotted, or rather Corals—thc non-coral-making actinoid Polyps, as dotted. July 21.-The young were kept in a vessel well as the coral-making—that is, between the seaamongst decaying vegetable inatter, which fostered anemones which deposit no lime, and the coral a growth of Confervæ, amongst wbich the tad animals which do. The chapter on “Life and Death poles became entangled. On disengaging them in concurrent Progress in Coral Zoophytes” is they were still living, but died shortly after ; thus deeply interesting, and we should gladly transcribe bringing my interesting observations to a close. In it for our readers, did space permit. Perhaps the closing I may add, that during the whole period most interesting part of the work, however, is that from their discovery both eggs and tadpoles were which treats on Reef-forming Corals, and the causes kept out of doors in the open air.
which influence their growth and distribution in Newcastle upon Tyne,
C. R. E. latitude, depth, &c.. The principal coral reefs and
islands throughout the globe are particularized,
the author having personally visited the most NEW BOOKS.*
important. The formation, rate of growth, and
origin of coral reefs, are elaborately treated on at conTHERE are few greater laxuries to a literary
siderable length. We have said enough, however, 1 naturalist than that of cutting the leaves of
to indicate to the student a valuable work, one that such a splendid volume as that which heads our list. The paper-knife would fain linger long over its work,
will help the zoologist nearly as much as the geoloand drops listlessly out of the hand when the last
gist. We proceed to quote a few paragraphs relapage has been severed! To a student this work is
tive to the mode in which the genera of some of
the commonest compound corals grow to their • "Corals and Coral Islands." By James D. Dana, LL.D. mature sizes. Speaking on this important subject, London : Sampson Low & Co. 1872.
Prof. Dana says:-“When the budding is not con“Botany for Beginners." By Maxwell T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. London: Bradhury, Evans, & Co. 1872.
fined to any particular polyp or cluster of polyps, “May Flowers." By the Rev. James Harris, M.A.
but takes place universally through the growing i mass, the coral formed is more or less Learly hemi.
London: Griffith & Farran. 1872,