Page images

Melicerta ringens are absent; but there are two , its name), somewhat similar in appearance to those tentacles armed with setæ, and attached in the of Floscularia campanulata. The dorsal lobe is usual manner. The pellet with which the animal frequently much larger than the other two; and builds its tube is formed in a kind of sac, situated when such is the case, it is commonly curved for

wards over the funnel-shaped mouth, and presents a somewhat hooded appearance. The setæ are not only much shorter than in other floscules, but they are also differently arranged, being placed between the lobes as well as on their summits, forming a kind of unbroken fringe along the entire margin of the disc; the interlobular setæ are, however, much shorter and finer than those on the summits of the lobes. Two cervical eyes are present only in the young. Vibratile cilia are seen distinctly along the course of the pharynx, as far as the maxillary apparatus, which latter organ, occupying the same position as in other floscules, is armed with three pairs of teeth. The ovary is large. The egg, when expelled, remains attached, The cloaca is situated unusually high in the body, and there is a long canal leading from the intestine and ovary to it.

The foot is of great length, and much wrinkled. Fig. 4. Ditto, when out of

This is the largest of the floscules ; its total length its tube.

is about the two of an inch. It is very rare, being Fig. 3. Melicerta socialis

a, Pellet. b, Cloaca. (dorsal view).

C, Egg and ovary.

I found in only one small pool in the parish of Sand

.: hurst during the years 1864, 65, and ’66. It is at the lower extremity of the abdomen, below the usually attached to moss. intestines and ovary; it is discharged through the cloaca, the creature raising itself, before expelling it, so as to bring the cloaca to a level with the rim

of the tube. The egg is
deposited in the tube,
and remains there until
the young is hatched.
Length of the adult,
about ob of an inch,
Found in shallow ponds,
usually attached to moss.
Named Socialis because
groups of four or five are
often found attached to
the same leaflet.

Fig. 7. Floscularia edentata.


Floscularia edentata.—This is a doubtful species, and perhaps not a true floscule, but more nearly allied to that genus than to any other. It has no tube. The disc or rotatory organ has a few fine setæ attached to it; it is irregular in form, and is not divided into lobes. The creature has no maxillary apparatus, nor bas it any teeth. Its food passes directly through the throat into a very capacious stomach, where a variety of the lower forms of life (some of large size) may be seen undergoing the process of digestion. The foot is short, but of variable length; in one specimen a good deal wrinkled. This form of rotiser is very rare ; I lare seen only two specimens. Each laid an egg while under observation, whicli remained attached, but

[blocks in formation]


were both unfortunately lost before the young ones | the juncture of the anterior with the middle third were batched. Length of the animal, about the gol of the body-stands out diagonally, and, projecting of an inch. Habitat, same as Floscularia trilobata. | for some distance beyond the termination of the

Notommata caudata.- Ege single, cervical; head | foot, is kept, by the rapid movements of this rest. somewbat rounded, connected with the body by a less creature, in a constant state of vibration. Total long narrow neck. Attached to the bead is a (one length, so of an inch, Habitat, Sandhurst, Berkonly) short, singular, flexible, tube-like appendage shire, in same pools as the above. (tentacle?), surmounted by setæ.* The body, which

is somewhat elliptical,
is prolonged posteriorly

into a kind of tail, on the

T NOTICE that prizes are offered for the best dorsal surface of which

1 collections of mosses and Hepaticæ to be made a rounded prominence

in the neighbourhood of London. Candidates for is observed, and from its

these prizes may be glad to know where to go, and summit there proceeds

what to look for, in the district with which I am a small setigenous tube,

best acquainted.

On Reigate Heath (a swampy wood at its western end should be carefully examined),

Sphagnum recurrum, rigidum.

, subsecundum, cymbifolium.
Dicranella cerriculata.
Hypnum cordifolium, stramineum.
Brachythecium albicans, rutabulum (var. robus-

Plagiothecium denticulatum.
Jungermannia curcifolia, platyphylla.
Hypnum imponens was found here some time

Fig. 8.

Fig. 9.

At the foot of Buckland Hill:a, Notommata caudata.

a, Stephanons uniseta.
b, Lateral view of ditto.

Thuidium hystricosum.

Hypnum chrysophyllum. not unlike, in appearance, the one attached to the

In the Mole, at the foot of Box Hill :head. Beneath this so-called tail, but separated from

Rhyucostegium rusciforme. i it by the cloaca, a long narrow foot, with two small pointed toes, joins the body. The maxillary bulb is On trees by the side of the Mole :placed high in the neck, and from it a long esopha Barbula mucronata. gus, with a kidney-shaped gland on each side of it, On trees at the foot of the hill :leads to a large stomach. The ovary is large, and

Cryphæa heteromalla. contains from eight to twelve germinal vesicles.

On the ground, and at foot of trees in the When magnified up to 350 diameters, water vascu

wood :lar canals are distinctly seen. Total length, tgo

Rhyncostegium tenellum, confertum. of an inch. Habitat, pools in the parish of Sand

Eurynchium pumilum, crassinervium. hurst.

Thamnium alopecurum. Stephanops uniseta.-Eyes two, small, frontal; anterior portion of the lorica is expanded into a Higher up, on the slopes of the bill:kind of hood, as in Stephanops muticus, but much Cylindrothecium concinnum. smaller in proportion to the size of the body. This Thuidium abietinum. hood is remarkably clear and crystalline; and the Didymodon rubellus. body, although the lorica presents a somewhat Leptotrichum flexicaule. tesselated appearance, is so transparent that it is Seligeria pusilla (on chalk). impossible to determine the internal structures.

On trees in the neighbourhood of Box Hill aid The foot is about half the length of the body; it is Dorking :furnished with three toes,-one, the dorsal, being Orthotrichum Lyellii, leiocarpum. scarce half as long as the others. A long, tremu

In Gomshall Marsh :lous bristle-which is fixed into a kind of socket or

Mnium rostratum. tube, situated in the centre of the back at about

Webcra albicans. * I could never ascertaia the exact point to which this

Physcomitrium pyriforme, appendage is ałtached.

Hypnum cuspidatum.

b, Lateral view of ditto.

On hedge-banks near Theire :

Eurynchium Suarzii.

Scleropodium illecebrum.
In the marsh on Keston Common :-

Sphagnum molluscum and others.

Campylopus torfaceus.
In a small pond on Shirley Common :-

Bartrania fontana.

Hypnum aduncum. I have not explored any other metropolitan district, and should be glad to know, for my own and general information, if any interesting species have been found elsewhere. T. Howse, F.L.S.

over every-day life. We feel that we ourselves are writing for readers in Natural Science, many of whom owe their “conversion " to Mr. Wood. The announcement, therefore, of a new work from his pen cannot fail to interest the reading public, especially as it appears in the height of the “reading season.” The additional information that this work is occupied with a subject which is the author's favourite study-Entomology–will raise expectation still higher. “When Greek joins Greek, then comes the tug of war.” There is something in cutting the leaves of a handsome volume like that before us, embellished with upwards of seven hundred figures, and occupying nearly seven hundred pages

[graphic][graphic][ocr errors]

Fig. 10. 1. Gonepterys libatrix. 2. Catocala nupta. 3. Tumia cretægata : a, Gonepteryx, larva; b, Rumia

crulugata, larva.


| in its decsriptions of insects of every kind, from the

beetle to the common house-fly! FEW writers have done more to popularize

There are two ways of criticising a book of tliis Natural History than the Rev. J. G. Wood.

kind,—from a popular scientific aspect, and also He has the art of attracting readers towards a sub

from a purely technical point of view. In adopting ect they perhaps never cared about before, solely

the former, we unhesitatingly avow our belief that by showing them how earnest he is in its study

“Insects at Home" will be a godsend to many a himself, and what a charm its pursuit can throw

young entomologist. The various groups of insects

have their anatomy illustrated, part by part, by * “Insects at Home; being a popular Account of British Insects." By the Rev. J. G. Wood, F.L.S., &c. London:

some familiar type, as the accompanying plates Longmans, Green, & Co. 1872.

(kindly lent us by the publishers) will best show :


Fig. 12. Dragon-dies, &c. 3. Ephemera vulgata. 2. Ditto, larva. 3. Libellula depressa. 3 2. Ditto, emerging from pupa-case. 4. Libellula, larva.

5. Calopterye tirgo. 6. Agrion minium. 7. Phrygunea grandis. 8. Ditto, larva-cases, or “Caddis-worms."



Vig. 11. Lucanus cerous (Olasection). Parts of the Head1. Mandibles, or jaws. 2. Antennæ. 24. Scape. 2b. Club. 3. Labium, or lower lip. 3 a. Labiæ ralpi.

or lip-seelers. 4. Maxilla, or lower jaws. 4 a. Maxillary palpi, or jaw feelers, 5. Head, upper surface. 5a. Eyes. 5b. Vertex, or crown. 5 c. Ocoiput, or back of head. 5d. Clypeus, or shield. 6. Head, under surface. 6 a. Eyes.

6 b. Insertion of antenne. Parts of Thorax and Abdomen.-7. Protnotum, or upper surface of thorax. 7 a. Lateral margin. 76. Anterior margin.

7 c. Posterior angles. 7 d. Posterior margin. 7e. Anterior angles. 8. Prosternum, or under surface of thorax. & a. Sternum. 86. Insertion of coxæ. 9. Mesothorax and upper surface of abdomen. 9a. Mesothorax alone, 9 b. Abdomen.

per surface alone. 20. Metasternum and Abdomen. 10 a. Metastevnum alone. 106. Abdomen, under surface alone.

10 €. Parapleura, or side-pieces. 20 d. Epistema, or breast-pieces. 12. Scutellum. Legs.-11. Anterior, or first pair of legs. 11 a. Tarsi, or fe

11 e. Coxæ. 13. Intermediate pair of legs. 15. Posterior pair of legs. The Wings.-14. Elytra. 14a. Suture. 146. Lateral margin. 140. Apex. 14 d. Base. 14e. Disk. 16. Wings, folded on

abdomen. 17. Left wing expanded. 18. Right wing folded.

A careful study of these organs, and an endeavour , volume, in wbich this intention is set forth. Of the to dissect specimens for himself in a similar way, woodcuts especially we camot speak too highly, will be no unprofitable amusement these winter both for their artistic skill and zoological accuracy. nights for the young naturalist. The author sug- The full-page plates are weaker, and of the coloured gests another means of familiarizing oneself with frontispiece the less said the better. the commonest insects,--that ofcolouring the wood The whole-page plate is from the work, and is, we cuts and plates of the present volume, after the think, one of the best of its kind. Mr. Fullager's natural tints and shades of the insects themselves. interesting notes, given elsewhere, on the developFor this purpose both plates and woodcuts have ment of the Dragon-fly from the pupa-case--as wit. been only faintly shaded ; a scheme, however, which nessed by himself in his own aquarium-will make has already drawn down the wrath of some critics, the details sufficiently clear. who have evidently not read the introduction to the "Insects at Home,” as its name implies, treats

« PreviousContinue »