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167. Rights of the invader over Incorporeal Things, as Debts, etc.

(Occupation of Naples (1495), Cases and Op., 384. See also : Hall, 418; Halleck, II., 473-479 ; Phillimore, III., 832-840.)

(h) Termination of WarConquestCession. 168. What marks the date of the end of a War ?.-Treaties of

Peace-Proclamations in Civil Wars. (1. The Thetis, Cases and Op., 899.; 2. The Protector, lb., 391. See also: Hall, 557; Heffter, 176; Phillimore, III., 770 ; Calvo, SS 3153-3154.)

169. Effect of Treaties of Peace in settling general rights and

obligations of the parties-Effect upon acts done before the war-Upon acts done during the war-Upon acts done subsequently to the treaty of peace. (Hall, 557–565 ; Phillimore, III., 770-784 ; Heffter, SS 179-183; Woolsey, 263-266; Calvo, SS 3155-3159. Cases : The Mentor, Cases and Op., 385 ; 2. The Nymph, 16., 386; 3. The Swineherd, Ib., 388.)

170. Postliminium-Uti possidetis-How do they apply to territory? (Hall, 486, 568; Halleck, II., 512-522; Phillimore,

; III., 616-618; Woolsey, 248-252 ; Heffter, SS 187–191 ; Bluntschli, Arts. 515, 727–741 ;. Calvo, SS 3150, 3169 et seq.)

171. Conquest - Cession (The Elector of Hesse Cassel, Cases

and Op., 381 ; 2. U. S. v. Moreno, lb., 375; Am. Ins. Co. v. Canter, Ib., 372. And see: Hall, 565–573; Halleck, II., 480 et seq.; Heffter, $ 133 ; Dana's Note to Wheaton, No. 169; Calvo, SS 2453–2490.)

III. RELATIONS BETWEEN BELLIGERENTS AND NEUTRALS.

(a) A General View of the Relations between Belligerents and

Neutrals.

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172. Historical Sketch of the Subject. (Hall, 576-594 ; Halleck,

II., 173 et seq.; Woolsey, 266-273 ; Wheaton (D), SS 412425 ; Creasey, 470-482 ; Heffter, SS 145–148 ; Phillimore,

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(6) Neutral Duties. 173. Neutrals are not to permit their Territory to be used for

hostile purposes by either belligerent–Transit of troopsFitting out hostile expeditions-Capture of vessels in neutral waters. (1. The Anna, Cases and Op., 293 ; 2. The General o Armstrong, Ib., 396; 3. The Perle, Ib., 398; 4. The Ann, Ib., 400; Other cases, 16., 401, note. See also: Hall, 495-612 ; Halleck, II., 173-181 ; Phillimore, III., 225–236; Heffter, SS 146–147 ; Calvo, § 2615 et seq.; Bluntschli, Art. 749 et seq.)

174. Equipment of vessels of war in neutral territory. (1. U.S.

Neutrality Acts, Cases and Op., 402; 2. British Foreign Enlistment Acts, Ib., 403; 3. La Amistad de Rues, Ib., 406 ; 4. The Santissima Trinidad, Ib., 408 ; 5. U. S. v. Quincy, Ib., 412 ; 6. The Meteor, Ib., 418; 7. The Terceira Affair, Ib., 421 ; 8. The Alabama, 425; 9. The Florida, Ib., 428 ; 10. The Shenandoah, Jb., 429 ; 11. The Georgia, Ib., 429 ; 12. The Sumpter, etc., Ib., 430 ; 13. The Geneva Award, Ib., 431. See also : Hall, 612– 620; Halleck, II., 184-195 ; Dana's Note to Wheaton, No. 215 ; Walker, 458-502 ; Phillimore, III., 236 et seq.)

175. Loans of Money to Belligerents. (Hall, 597-599; Blunt

schli, Art. 768; Halleck, II., 195; Phillimore, III., 247.)

176. Sale of Munitions of War by a Neutral State. (Sale of

Arms to France, Cases and Op., 459; Hall, 599.)

177. Aid to Insurgents-Loans-Munitions of War. (1. De Wütz

v. Hendricks, Cases and Op., 438 ; 2. Thompson v.
Powles, Ib., 440; 3. Kennett v. Chambers, 16., 441; 4.
U. S. v. Trumbull, Ib., 443 ; 5. The Salvador, Ib., 455.
And see : Phillimore, III., 247-250).

(c) Contraband of War. 178. General Law of Contraband. (Hall, 644 ; Halleck, II., 244 ;

Woolsey, 318 ; Phillimore, III., 338; Wheaton (D), § 476

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et seq.)

179. It was formerly the custom to declare by proclamation at the

war

beginning of a what articles would be considered Contraband. (Proclamation of Charles I., Cases and Op., 462.)

180. Classification of Contraband Res ancipitis usus Occa

sional contraband. (1. The Peterhoff, Cases and Op., 465 ; 2. The Commercen, Ib., 470; 3. Il Volante, Ib., 472 ; 4. Other cases, lb., 471, note. And see: Hall, 658–668 ; Halleck, II., 251-264; Heffter, $ 160 ; Wheaton (D), SS 477–500; Davies, 310-350 ; Woolsey, 321-329.)

181. Penalty for carrying contraband Time when penalty

attaches-Rule of English and American Courts-French Rule. (1. The Neutralitet, Cases and Op., 474 ; 2. Seton v. Low, Ib., 475 ; 3. Ex parte Chavasse, Ib., 476.)

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182. Dispatches and Persons as Contraband. (1. The Atalanta, Cases and Op., 477; 2. The Rapid, Ib., 480 ; 3. The

; Madison, Ib., 482 ; 4. The Orozembo, Ib., 483 ; 5. The Trent, Ib., 486. And see : Hall, 675-686; Halleck, II., 324, note; Woolsey, 335–339 ; Heffter, $ 161 a.)

(d) Blockade. 183. The purpose of Blockade-What is an effective Blockade

Notification-De facto Blockade. (1. The Neptunus, Cases and Op., 490 ; 2. The Betsy, Ib., 492 ; 3. The Nancy, Ib., 494; 4. The Ocean, Ib., 495 ; 5. Other cases, Ib.,496, note. See : Hall, 696-714; Halleck, II., 211–225 ; Woolsey, 342-350; Heffter, SS 154–156 ; Wheaton (D), S$ 511-520.)

184. Penalty for Breach of Blockade-When does the penalty

attach ?-French Rule. (The Helen, Cases and Op., 197. And Hall, 715 ; Woolsey, 350-351.)

(2) Rule of the War of 1756.

185. Neutrals may not engage in a trade during war, from which

they were excluded in time of peace. (1. The Immanuel,
Cases and Op., 502 ; 2. The Emanuel, Ib., 504. See also:
Hall, 639-612; Halleck, II., 330-339 ; Woolsey, 339-312 ;
Bluntschli, Art. 800, r. ; Phillimore, III., 370-386.)

(f) Continuous Voyages.

186. Colonial Trade, and Coasting Trade-Extension in 1793.

(1. The William, Cases and Op., 505; Hall, 672 ; Woolsey, 355 ; Phillimore, III., 388.)

187. Applied to the Carriage of Contraband, and the breach of

blockade by American Courts. (The Stephen Hart, Cases and Op., 509. See also : Hall, 673; Walker, 514, 515,

. 525 ; Phillimore, III., 391-403. Extract from the Bermuda, pp. 391–395, from the Peterhoff, pp. 395-396, from Hobbs v. Hemning, pp. 397-403; Bluntschli, Art. 835, r. 5; Calvo, SS 2762-2766.)

(9) The Right of Search and Capture. 188. The Right of Visit and Search is a belligerent right, to

which Neutrals are subject-And resistance in any manner to this right entails condemnation. (The Maria, Cases and Op., 515. And see : Hall, 725-731 ; Halleck, II., 267, 268, 283–296 ; Phillimore, III., 522, 544, 550 ; Woolsey, 358, 361 ; Calvo, SS 2939-3003, as to whole subject of Visit and Search ; Wheaton (D), SS 525–528; Heffter, SS 167-170.)

189. Formalities of the Exercise of the Right of Search

Grounds of Capture-False Documents-Spoliation of Papers. (Hall, 732–741 ; Halleck, II., 297–299 ; Phillimore, III., 536.)

190. The Right of Visit and Search in time of peace-Impress

ment of Seamen-Slave Trade-Protection of Seals-Piracy. (Halleck, II., 268-282; Phillimore, III., 525-529. And see the case of Le Louis, Cases and Op., S 21 c, and p. 518, note; Woolsey, 365-386 ; The Behring Sea Arbitration, Cases and Op., 521.)

191. The Right to capture Enemy's goods in Neutral vessels,

and Neutral goods in Enemy's vessels—“Free ships, free goods”-Declaration of Paris. (Hall, 687-695, 717-723.)

(1) Prize Courts.

192. The Constitution of Prize Courts in different countries.

(Phillimore, III., 658–665 ; Lawrence's Wheaton, 960–

976.) 193. The Principles and Practice of Prize Courts. (Phillimore,

III., 666-679.)

194. Decisions of Prize Courts—They are courts of the captors' country. (Decisions of Prize Courts, Cases

(, and Op., 518.)

195. Prize Courts on board ships—Practice of Captain Semmes, of

the Alabama. (Cases and Op., 519.)

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