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As the ducts increase in size they are provided with a fibrous coat, and the epithelium in their interior becomes columnar.

The interlobular ducts do not anastomose.

Sacculi in the Coats of the Ducts.

When the fibrous coat reaches a certain degree of thickness it contains numerous little cavities, or sacculi, arranged entirely round the tube in the pig and in most animals, but forming two parallel rows, one on either side of the duct, in the human subject.

These little sacculi often communicate with each other in the coats of the duct. The smaller branches of the duct also anastomose frequently, either in the coats of the duct or just external to them.

The sacculi appear to serve the purpose of bringing the bile in the thick walled ducts into closer relation with the vessels which surround them, and especially with the branches of the artery which are distributed to their coats.

Of the Vasa Aberrantia and of the arrangement of the Vessels around them.

In the transverse fissure of the human liver and some others, and in the large portal canals, are found some peculiar branches of the duct, vasa aberrantia, with numerous sacculi on their walls, which anastomose with each other and form a network.

In the same localities in the human subject, and in the gallbladder, a very peculiar arrangement of the vessels occurs. Both arteries and veins form a network, and each branch of the artery is accompanied with two branches of the vein, one on either side of it.



BIANCHI. Historia Hepatica, Taurin, 1616, 4to; 1710, 8vo.


SYLVIUS DE LA BOE. De Bile et Hepatis Usu, Lugd., Bat.

1616. 1630.


ROLFINKIUS. Dissertatio de Hepate, Jena.

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J. WEPFER. De Dubiis Anatomicis, Epistola ad J. H. Paulum, Norimb.
MALPIGHI. De Viscerum Structura, Bologna, London, 1699.
BIDLOO. Anatomia Corporis Humani, Amstel.

HOFFMAN. De Venâ Portæ, Altnorf.

REVERHORST. De Motu Bilis Circulari, Lugd., Bat.

1698. STAHL. De Vena Portæ, Porta Malorum, Halle.

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Pozzi. Commentariolo Epist. pro Gland. Hepat. et Glissoni Caps, &c.
FANTON. Brev. Manducatio, Hist. Anat. Corp. Hum., Taurin.

WEPFER. De Hepate.


HARTMANN. De Bile, in Halleri Diss. Anat.

HELVETIUS. De Structurâ Hepatis, Lugd., Bat.

FUCHS. De Vena Portæ, Argent.

SALZMANN. De Vena Portæ, in Halleri Diss. Anatom., Vol. III.
VATER. Reply to Berger, De Novo Bilis Diverticulo Circa Orificium
Ductus Choledochi ut et Valvulosâ Colli Vesica Constructione,
Viteb. 1720; in Halleri Disp. Anatom. Vol. III.
HUBER. De Bile, Basle.

WAINRIGHT. Anatomical Treatise on the Liver with Diseases, &c.,

GÜNZ. De Venâ Cavâ, Vena Umbilic. et Anastom. har. Venar. in
Hepate, Leipzig.

RUYSCH. Opera Omnia, Amstel.

1739-40. WALTHER. De Venâ Porta. Lips., in Halleri Diss. Anatom., Vol. III.

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SEEGER. De Ortu et Progressu Bilis Cystic, Lugd. Bat., in Halleri
Diss., Vol. III.

MORGAGNI. Adversaria Anatomica, Lugd., Bat.

MOSEDER. De Vesiculâ Felleà, Argent.

WESTPHAL. De existentiâ Ductuum Hepatico-cysticorum in Homine,

1745. JUNCKER. Singulari quædam ad Vesicam Felleam ejusque Bilem Spect., Halle, 1745.

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WOERTMANN. De Bile Utilissimo xuλorоinσnws Instrumento, Ultraj.

* The list of the earlier works has been taken principally from Mr. Erasmus Wilson's Article, "Liver," in Todd's Cyclopodia of Anatomy and Physiology.

1746-8. BERTRANDI. Dissert. Anatom. de Hepat. et Oculo, Turin. FRANKEN. Hep. Historia Anatomica, Lugd., Bat.


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FERRIEN. Sur la Structure des Viscerès nommés Glanduleux et particulièrement sur celle des Reins et du Foie, in Mem. de Paris. HALLER. Disputationes Anatomicæ.

RAMSAY. On the Bile, Edinburgh.

SCHREDER. Experimenta ad Veriorem Cystica Bilis indolem decla-
randam capta, Gottingen.

SPIELMAN. Resp. J. M. Roederer Experimenta Circa Naturam Bilis,

MACLURY. Experiments on the Human Bile, London.

UTENDORFER. Experimenta nonnulla et Observationes de Bile, Argen


AMBODICK. De Hepate, Strasbourg.

LOBSTEIN. Reply to Ambodick's Diss. de Hepate, Argentorat.
WALTER. Observationes Anatomicæ.

SABATIER. Traité d'Anatomie, Paris.

VAN DER LEUW. De Bilis indole ejusque in Chylificatione utilitate,

GOLDWITZ. Neue Versuche zu einer wahren Physiologie der Galle,

WALTER. De Structurâ Hepatis et Vesiculæ Felleæ, Annot. Acad.

WALTER. De Polyp. Uteri et Hepate, Berlin.

RICHTER. Expl. Circa Bilis Naturam, Erlangen.
BLEULAND. Icon Hepatis Fotûs Octimestris.

THILOW. De Vasis Bilem ex Receptaculo ad Renes Ferentibus.
PLOUCQUET. Reply to Bolley, Exp. Circa Vim Chylific., Tubingen.
SAUNDERS. A Treatise on the Structure, &c., of the Liver, Bile, and
Biliary Concretions, London.

SEMMERING. De Corporis Humani Fabrica, Vol. VI.

NIEMEYER. Comment. de Commercio inter Animi Pathemat. Hepar

Bilemque, &c., Gottingen.

MURRAY. Reply to Froelich, Delineatio Sciagraphica Venæ Portæ,

METZGER. Anatomia Hepat. Comparata Specimen, Regiom. 1798. DOMLING. Ist Die Leber Reinigung's Organ? Vienna.


1801. BICHAT. Anatomie Descriptive, Paris.

1803. PORTAL. Cours d'Anatomie Médicale, Paris.

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HOEULIEU. Descript. Anat. Syst. Ven. Port., &c., Francfort.
SCHUMANN. Diss. de Hepatis in Foetu magnitud. caus. ejusd. functioni,

MAPPES. Dissert. de Penitiori Hepatis Humani Structurâ, Tubingen.
BERMANN. Diss. de Structurâ Hepatis Ven. Port.

FELICI. Osservaz. Fisiologich. Sopra le Funzioni della Milza, Vena
Porta, del Fegato, &c., Milan.

WALTHER. Diss. de Psychica Hepatis Dignitate, Halle.

BICHAT. Anatomie Générale, Paris.



Prodromo della Grande Anatomia Firenze.


BELTZ. Quædam de Hepatis Dignitate, Berlin.



BERNARD. Leçons de Physiologie Expérimentale, Paris.

BEALE. On the ultimate arrangement of the Biliary Ducts, and on some other points in the Anatomy of the Liver of Vertebrate Animals, Phil. Trans.

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Lectures on the Minute Anatomy of the Liver, delivered at King's College, Medical Times and Gazette.

DONDERS. Physiologie des Menschen aus dem Holländischen übersezt.
von Fr. W. Theile.

G. KEMP. Experimental Researches on the Functions of the Mucous
Membrane of the Gall-bladder, Proceedings of the Royal Society,
Vol. VIII., No. 21.


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