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1801
1821

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1801 1801 1801 1860 51871 71801 1749 1864 1857 1800 1846 1829 1837 1861

1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1900 1900 1901 1900 1906 1900 1899 1900 1901 1906 1901 1906 1905 1900 1907

8,892,536 32,527,843
189,508 54,752

95,618
5,216,329 4,458,775
1,608,420 4,472,103

442,013 367,736
139,842 * 207,890

18,695 27,460
883,440 2,240,032
1,746,449 5,136,441
4,188,410 5,423,132
15,464,340 10 18,831,574
27,349,003 39,252,245
4,337,196 6,693,810
2,613,487 5,104,137
2,190,258 3,315,443
21,777,334 32,475,253

925,680 2,588,919
47,240 78,470

5,265 16,349
41,062,697 60,641,278
30,726,503 45,405,267

712,608 2,631,952

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England and Wales
Iglo of Man
Channel Islands
Ireland
Scotland
2 Army and navy and seamen abroad,
: Malta .
Gibraltar
Norway.
Sweden
• Portugal
Spain.
France
Belgium
The Netherlands
Switzerland
Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia,
Denmark

12 Iceland

13 Faroe Island
German Empire
Austria-Hungary
Greece.
Turkey in Europe

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Cyprus
Crete

Samos
Montenegro
Monaco
Andorra
Luxemburg (Grand Duchy)
San Marino
Servia

Rumania
14 Russia in Europe.

7,238,622 5,672,237 3,463,609 33,640,710

u 1801

1801
1801
1871
1850
1832

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i Including Channel Islands.
2 Also included in the returns for countries where stationed.
3 Including Gozo and Comino.
* Including military and naval and merchant shipping.
5 A count of population in 1860 gave 18,491.
• Excluding military and naval, etc.
7 A count made in 1769 gave population as 723,141.

Including Azores and Madeira.
9 A count made in 1594 gave population as 8,206,791.
10 Legal population.
11 A count made in 1769 gave population as 814,238, and one in 1787 gave 840,045.
12 A count made in 1769 gave population as 46,201.
13 A count made in 1769 gave population as 4,773.
14 Including Finland.

13 Before 1897 there were various enumerations called revisions. In 1897 the whole of the empire was enumerated.

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1

1871
1857

1901
1901
1901
1901
1906
1901
1901
1901

2,405,287

77,094

62,461,549 231,899,507

104,527 3,573,419 1328,638

130,792 1573,598 678,595

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1871
1891

308,097
418,509

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Russia in Asia
Japan, including Formosa and the

Pescadores
Korea
Chinese Empire
India (Native States)
British India
North Borneo
Ceylon
Hong Kong
Wei-Hai-Wei
The Straits Settlements
Federated Malay States
State of Johor
French Indo-China:

French India
Annam
2 Cambodia.
Cochin-China

Tonkin and Laos .
Afghanistan.
Turkey in Asia
Persia
Bhutan
Oman
Nepal
Bokhara
Khiva
Siam
Portuguese possessions

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1 Including military and naval.
2 Not including provinces ceded by Siam in 1907.

3 Census of 1904 was for twelve Monthons or provincial circles only, the metropolitan Monthon of Bangkok being among those not enumerated.

• Partly estimated.
s First census taken under Act of 1862. A count made in 1691 gave population as 1706.
6 Excluding military and naval.

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OCCUPATION MORTALITY STATISTICS OF

SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND, 1890–1907.

By F. S. CRUM.

The annual reports of the Medical Officer of Health of Sheffield, England, have long been of special interest and value because they have contained occupation mortality data. This fact in itself is sufficient to mark the reports as being unique, for mortality by occupation is very rarely included in the health reports of England or any other country. Sheffield being an important centre for the manufacture of cutlery and files, many men are employed there as cutlers, grinders, toolmakers, file-makers, etc., and the occupation statistics are of special value because they throw considerable light upon certain trades which are health-injurious.

The present report, like those for many previous years, contains the tabulated mortality returns for all of the important occupations. The industries of special importance, however, are those already specifically mentioned. The following table found on page xi of the report for 1907 will indicate in a rough way the effect of certain occupations on mortality, and particularly their effect on the mortality from certain causes of death:

SHEFFIELD FROM ALL CAUSES AND

AVERAGE MORTALITY IN

FROM PHTHISIS AND DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS DURING THE THREE YEARS, 1905, 1906, AND 1907, IN CERTAIN DUSTY TRADES, AND AMONG ALL MALES OVER TWENTY YEARS OF AGE.

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This table would have been more useful if it had been given by divisional periods of life, but even in its present form it is suggestive of the baneful effect on health of certain trades which expose the workmen to mineral and metallic dust. The mortality rate from all causes is shown to have been more than double the expected rate for grinders and cutlers, and excessive for file-cutters and other metal-goods workers. The mortality from phthisis was more than six times as high for grinders as for all males, and very much in excess also among the other metal workers. The mortality from respiratory diseases was four times as high for cutlers as for all occupied males, and considerably in excess among other metal workers.

Unfortunately, the number of persons employed in the various trades peculiar to Sheffield are not available by divisional periods of life, and it is therefore impossible to calculate deathrates by age groups. The mortality returns, however, are given by age groups and by principal causes of death, and a study of these statistics can be made in such a manner as to show the proportion which certain causes of death bear to the mortality from all causes at various divisional periods of life. This method, when used in a comparative way, is very suggestive and perhaps quite as determining for certain purposes as deathrates per 1,000 living.

In the following tables a summary is presented of the statistics of four typical trades—grinders, cutlers, tool-makers, and file-cutters—for the eighteen-year period 1890–1907, for the purpose of showing whether or not there has been any improvement in the mortality from phthisis and respiratory diseases of the workmen in the trades specified:

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