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1801 1801 1801 1860 51871 71801 1749 1864 1857 1800 1846 1829 1837 1861
1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1901 1900 1900 1901 1900 1906 1900 1899 1900 1901 1906 1901 1906 1905 1900 1907
England and Wales
13 Faroe Island
Bosnia and Herzegovina
7,238,622 5,672,237 3,463,609 33,640,710
i Including Channel Islands.
Including Azores and Madeira.
13 Before 1897 there were various enumerations called revisions. In 1897 the whole of the empire was enumerated.
104,527 3,573,419 1328,638
130,792 1573,598 678,595
Russia in Asia
Tonkin and Laos .
1 Including military and naval.
3 Census of 1904 was for twelve Monthons or provincial circles only, the metropolitan Monthon of Bangkok being among those not enumerated.
• Partly estimated.
OCCUPATION MORTALITY STATISTICS OF
SHEFFIELD, ENGLAND, 1890–1907.
By F. S. CRUM.
The annual reports of the Medical Officer of Health of Sheffield, England, have long been of special interest and value because they have contained occupation mortality data. This fact in itself is sufficient to mark the reports as being unique, for mortality by occupation is very rarely included in the health reports of England or any other country. Sheffield being an important centre for the manufacture of cutlery and files, many men are employed there as cutlers, grinders, toolmakers, file-makers, etc., and the occupation statistics are of special value because they throw considerable light upon certain trades which are health-injurious.
The present report, like those for many previous years, contains the tabulated mortality returns for all of the important occupations. The industries of special importance, however, are those already specifically mentioned. The following table found on page xi of the report for 1907 will indicate in a rough way the effect of certain occupations on mortality, and particularly their effect on the mortality from certain causes of death:
SHEFFIELD FROM ALL CAUSES AND
AVERAGE MORTALITY IN
FROM PHTHISIS AND DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS DURING THE THREE YEARS, 1905, 1906, AND 1907, IN CERTAIN DUSTY TRADES, AND AMONG ALL MALES OVER TWENTY YEARS OF AGE.
This table would have been more useful if it had been given by divisional periods of life, but even in its present form it is suggestive of the baneful effect on health of certain trades which expose the workmen to mineral and metallic dust. The mortality rate from all causes is shown to have been more than double the expected rate for grinders and cutlers, and excessive for file-cutters and other metal-goods workers. The mortality from phthisis was more than six times as high for grinders as for all males, and very much in excess also among the other metal workers. The mortality from respiratory diseases was four times as high for cutlers as for all occupied males, and considerably in excess among other metal workers.
Unfortunately, the number of persons employed in the various trades peculiar to Sheffield are not available by divisional periods of life, and it is therefore impossible to calculate deathrates by age groups. The mortality returns, however, are given by age groups and by principal causes of death, and a study of these statistics can be made in such a manner as to show the proportion which certain causes of death bear to the mortality from all causes at various divisional periods of life. This method, when used in a comparative way, is very suggestive and perhaps quite as determining for certain purposes as deathrates per 1,000 living.
In the following tables a summary is presented of the statistics of four typical trades—grinders, cutlers, tool-makers, and file-cutters—for the eighteen-year period 1890–1907, for the purpose of showing whether or not there has been any improvement in the mortality from phthisis and respiratory diseases of the workmen in the trades specified: