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This List is concerned with material in the Library of Congress upon railroads in the United States in their economic and political relations.

It includes treatises on the theory and history of railroad transportation, discussions of the economic effects of railroad combinations, governmental investigations, speeches in Congress, and reports on interstate commerce, with references to some judicial decisions. The Appendix is devoted to the Northern securities case.

Transportation in its historical and economic aspects receives scholarly treatment in Hadley's “Railroad transportation : its history and its laws;" and in Johnson's "American railway transportation.' The latter work has the advantage of later investigations and of having the results of operations under the interstate commerce act to work upon. Hadley's work has not been superseded as an exposition of conditions up to the date of its publication. Ringwalt's “Development of transportation systems in the United States” is a popular compendium of traffic history in this country.

General discussions of railroad problems.-Larrabee's “The railroad question” is written to show that railroads “will not serve their real purpose until they become in fact . . . highways to be controlled by the government as thoroughly and effectually as the common road, the turnpike and the ferry, or the post-office and the custom-house.” Adams's “Railroads: their origin and problems” is a criticism of existing railroad policies in the late seventies. Kirkman's “Railway rates and government control” in common with his other writings is devoted to commendation of existing conditions and argues against government interference. Hudson's “The railways and the republic” is devoted to a discussion of what he terms railroad abuses. Morgan's “The people and the railways” is a vehement rejoinder to Hudson's argument. Stickney's “The railway problem” is a study by a railroad president with conclusions in favor of government control. Dabney in his “The public regulation of railways” favors government control. Newcomb's “Railway economics" is largely concerned with a discussion of the decline of rates. Pratt's “American railways” is a study by an English writer. McCain's “Compendium of transportation theories” contains essays by experts representing all shades of opinion on railroad topics.



Railroads and trusts.—The subject of railroads as a part of the trust question is considered in Baker's “Monopolies and the people;" Bolen's “The plain facts as to the trusts;" Bonham's “Railway secrecy and trusts;" Cloud's “Monopolies and the people;" Cook's “The corporation problem;" Hardesty's “The mother of trusts;” and Moody's “The truth about the trusts."

Railroad combinations and pooling.–A detailed study is afforded by Langstroth and Stilz's “Railway co-operation ” which is provided with a bibliography.

The writings of Albert Fink are held in high esteem among writers on railroad questions. They afford much material on the subject of combination from the standpoint of a railroad expert. Among them there are to be noted, his "Argument before the Committee of commerce of the House of Representatives,” January, 1880; the “Argument before the Committee of commerce of the Senate," February, 1879; the “Argument before the Committee on commerce of the United States House of Representatives," March, 1882; "Cost of railroad transportation;" “An investigation into the cost of transportation on American railroads, with deductions for its cheapening;” “Investigation into the cost of passenger traffic on American railroads;" “The legislative regulation of railroads;" “Regulation of interstate commerce by Congress;" “Report upon the adjustment of railroad transportation rates to the seaboard." The last named writing by Mr. Fink is not in the Library of Congress but is to be found in the Library of the Interstate Commerce Commission, where are also to be found his “Argument before the Committee on commerce of the United States House of Representatives," January, 1884; “Relative cost of carload and less than carload shipments and its bearing upon freight classification," Chicago, 1889; and “Testimony before the Senate committee on labor and education," September 17, 1883.

Other discussions of combinations and pooling are to be found in: Alexander's “Railroad consolidation,” and “Railway practice;" Blanchard's "Argument before the Committee on commerce of the House of Representatives in opposition to the pending bill for the regulation of interstate commerce," and his “Shall railroad pooling be permitted?” Cooley's “The interstate commerce act-Pooling and combinations which affect its operation,” “Popular and legal view of traffic pooling,” “The railway problem defined;" Hadley's “The prohibition of railroad pools;" Hopkins's “Railroad combinations and discriminations;" Huntington's “A plea for railway consolidation;" Kenna's “Railway consolidation;" Knapp's “Equality of rights in transportation agencies,” “Government regulation of railroad rates," “Railroad pooling,” “Some observations on railroad pooling;" Newcomb's “The concentration of railway control,” “The failure of legislation to enforce railway competition,” “The necessity of limiting railway competition,” “Railway economics,” “ The recent great railway combinations," and "Where competition is present discrimination can not be absent: an argument for the restoration of the pooling privilege with federal supervision;" Nimmo's “The American railroad system and the trust question,” “The apportionment of traffic among competing railroads,” “Commercial, economic, and political questions not decided in the Northern securities case," "

“The community of interests method of regulating railroad traffic in its historic aspects," "The limitation of competition and combination as illustrated in the regulation of railroads,” “Pooling and governmental control of the railroads,” “The railroads as one system,” “Some characteristics of the American railway system;” Peabody's “The necessity for railway compacts under governmental regulation;" Prouty's“The dependence of agriculture on transportation,” “ National regulation of railways,” “ Railway pooling–from the people's point of view;" Rice's “The proposed testimony of George Rice . . . particularly relating to the Standard oil trust, railroad freight discriminations, and unlawful pooling of rail and water lines;” Sterne's“ Legislation concerning, and management of railways in the United States," “Railroad poolings and discriminations,” “The railway problem;" Thurman, Washburne, and Cooley's “Report constituting an advisory commission on differential rates by railroads between the west and the seaboard;” and Walker's “The amendment of the interstate commerce law,” “ The pooling of railway earnings,” “Railway associations,” and "The Western traffic association.” The official reports noted in this List under New York, State, and under United States contain material of vital importance. The works noted above under the headings Transportation, General discussions, etc., are necessary contributions to this phase of the railroad question. See also the Appendix containing references on the Northern securities case.

The farmer and the railroad.-Atkinson's “The distribution of products; ... The railway, the farmer, and the public;" Dixon's “State railroad control, with a history of its development in Iowa;” Hardesty's “The mother of trusts. Railroads and their relation to “the man with the plow;'” Larrabee's "The railroad question;” Martin's “History of the grange movement, or, the farmer's war against monopolies;” Meyer's “Railway legislation in the United States;' Morgan's “ History of the Wheel and Alliance, and the impending revolution;" Prouty's “The dependence of agriculture on transportation;" Robinson's “The octopus;” and Thompson's “The farmers' fight against the railroads."

Federal reports and legislation.—The genesis of Congressional legislation is signalized by the “Report from the Committee on roads and canals” presented June 9, 1868, on the regulation and control of railroads, forming House report no. 57 of the Fortieth Congress, second

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