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Financing of Obligations The financing of the estimated total obligations of $2,662,050,000 proposed in the budget estimates for 1974, together with comparable data for 1972 and 1973, is summarized in the following table:

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Funds Available for Obligations:
Direct Program:

Unobligated balance, beginning of year
Appropriation
Transfer to Other Accounts
Transfer from Other Accounts
Revenues Received from Non-Federal Sources

Total Funds Available for Obligations
Less: Unobligated balance, end of year

Total Obligations Incurred Direct Program

$ 119,507,699 1,950,130,000

-1,020,340

2,800,000
259,486,062
2,330,903,421

80,538, 671
2,250,364,750

692,000,000 2,662,050,000

490,400,000 2,709,718,685

215,300,000 2.494,418,685

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2,662,050,000

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Expenditures for Operating Expenses Expenditures from the "Operating Expenses" appropriation for 1974 are estimated at $1,866,400,000. The estimated amounts available for expenditure in 1972, 1973, and 1974, the remaining unexpended balances and the expenditures for each year are shown in the following table:

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HIGHLIGHTS OF OPERATING PROGRAMS

There follows a brief description of each of the direct programs set forth in the summary on page GS-2.

1. Nuclear Materials Program - Operating costs for the nuclear materials program are estimated at $540.8 million in 1974, compared with 1973 estimated costs of $433.7 million and 1972 actual costs of $383.2 million. The 1974 program estimates provide for continuation of uranium resource production evaluation activities and for the production of special nuclear materials to meet weapons production schedules and requirements for other programs. Also included in this program for 1974 are estimates for AEC waste burial ground operations, the long-term management and research and development related thereto of all radioactive was tes generated by AEC operations and all high level wastes generated by the nuclear industry, and operational safety related activities. In the production of special nuclear materials, uranium concentrates are processed into feed materials from which plutonium and other products are produced at Richland, Washington, and Sava River, South Carolina and uranium is enriched in the isotope U-235 in plants at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. The estimates for diffusion plants also provide for the enrichment of feed supplied from the private sector pursuant to Sec. 161v of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and for which revenues resulting from charges for separative work are budgeted under the Revenues Applied Program. The 1974 estimates provide for the continued operation of three reactors at Savannah River and N reactor at Richland, The major increases in 1974 are for electric power for the diffusion plants and for the operation of reactors. Work will continue on process improvements to assure continuity and safety of operations, more economical methods of production, and more timely development of new production processes.

2. Weapons Program - Operating costs for the weapons program are estimated at $883.3 million in 1974, compared with 1973 estimated
costs of $867.7 million and 1972 actual costs of $844.1 million. The weapons program encompasses the production of atomic wea ons;
the maintenance of stockpiled weapons in a state of constant readiness; the design, development and underground testing of new
weapons types; and participation with the Department of Defense in the test readiness program and in the development of test
detection methods; and research and development for improving nuclear materials security. The 1974 estimates include increases
for the production of new weapons systems and for research and development, decreases in special test detection activities, and in
testing of atomic weapons, and a minor increase in nuclear materials security.

3. Naval Reactor Development Program - Operating costs for the Naval Reactor Development Program are estimated at $154.2 million in 1974, compared with 1973 estimated costs of $149.8 million and 1972 actual costs of $138,9 million. The Naval Reactor Development Program is aimed at designing and developing improved naval nuclear propulsion plants and reactor cores in a wide range of power ratings to meet the military requirements of the Department of Defense. The pressurized water nuclear propulsion plants and cores under development are suitable for installation in naval vessels ranging in size from small submarines to large combatant surface ships. During 1974 a high level of effort will continue on development of an advanced core with longer life for application to nuclear-powered guided-missile frigates and high-speed submarines, and on the development of advanced reactors for submarines. An increased level of effort will be directed toward the development of a submarine propulsion plant for the TRIDENT submarines.

4.

Operating costs for the reactor development program are estimated at $320.8 million in 1974, compared with 1973 estimated cost of $293.1 million and 1992 actual coere of $260.4 m1111on. In a June 4, 1971 message to Congress, the President outlined a broad range of actions to assure an adequate supply of clean energy for the years ahead. To facilltate research and development for clean energy the President Included a commitment to complete the successful demonstration of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) by 1980. The President's message stated:

"Our best hope today for meeting the Nation's growing demand for economical clean energy lies with the fast breeder
reactor. Because of its highly efficient use of nuclear fuel, the breeder reactor could extend the life of our
natural uranium fuel supply from decades to centuries, with far less impact on the environment than the power plants

which are operating today."
The development program on Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) will be increasingly oriented to the engineering
requirements necessary to achieve reliable, safe and economic breeder power plants including an LMFBR demonstration plant in the
350-400 MWe range. A memorandum of understanding setting forth the basic arrangements for a demonstration plant project was
executed by AEC with the Commonwealth Edison Co. of Chicago, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and two new, not-for-profit
corporations have been established for coordinated participation in the project by the nation's public and private utilities,
This memorandum was submitted to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Negotiations are underway. The plant is to be located
on a TVA site on the clinch River near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Westinghouse has been selected as the lead reactor manufacturer
and Burns & Roe has been selected as the architect-engineer for the plant.

The stimates provide for research and development in reactor technology, and in nuclear safety with added em asis directed toward light water reactor safety and breeder reactor safety. The division of Naval Reactors plans to conclude its use of the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho by the end of April 1973; however, modifications are under way to continue use of the ETR for the breeder reactor safety program by installing a fuel element failure propagation test loop. 5. Applied Energy Technology Program Operating costs for the Applied Energy Technology Program are estimated at $ 8.0 million in 1974 compared with estimated costs of $14.2 million in 1973 and actual costs of $12.6 million in 1972,

In 1974, the General Energy Development subprogram will continue research and development on energy transmission and storage
technologies. These efforts are directed toward the transmission of electricity through underground cables utilizing super-
conducting materials, and the storage of off-peak generated electricity in lithium/sulfur secondary batteries.

The Isotopes Development Technology activities will be limited to the development of a prototype radioisotope-powered artificial heart system. All other activities in the development of isotope production and applications technology are being phased out in FY 1973.

The applications of underground explosions subprogram will be limited to laboratory development efforts, along with cooperative studies with industry on application of the technology to areas such as gas stimulation and copper leaching.

6. Space Nuclear Systems Program Operating costs for the Space Nuclear Systems Program are estimated at $26.1 million in 1974, compared with 1973 estimated costs of $38,1 million, and 1972 actual costs of $41.8 million, In 1974, the program includes only the Space Electric Power Development effort which is developing the technology and the nuclear radioisotope sources to provide electrical power for operating spacecraft instrumentation during space missions. The nuclear rocket propulsion program and the space electric power reactor development program will be terminated in 1973.

7. Physical Research Program Operating costs for the Physical Research Program are estimated at $250.0 million in 1974, as compared with $240.8 million in 1973 and actual costs of $233.8 million in 1972. This program provides support for both theoretical and experimental basic research in the physical sciences. Investigations are conducted at the boundaries of scientific knowledge in order to develop an understanding of the properties and behavior of both matter and energy. The basic foundation for advances in the development, use and control of atomic energy is developed through research in the fields of physics, mathematics, chemistry, and metallurgy and materials. Within high energy physics the 200 Bev accelerator will receive increased funding to support the first full year of operation of this new research machine. Support for all other high energy physics accelerators will be reduced. The Commission serves as executive agent for the nation's high energy physics research. Also included in the estimates for this program are $25,000 for the Fermi award and $25,000 for the Ernest 0. Lawrence awards,

8. Controlled Thermonuclear Research Program Operating costs for the Controlled Thermonuclear Research Program are estimated at $44,5 million in 1974, as compared wi th $37.0 million in 1973, and actual costs of $31.0 million in 1972. While the ultimate objective of this program is the development of practical fusion reactors for the production of electrical and thermal energy, the current emphasis is on understanding of the plasma state, preparations for new experimental programs aimed at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of fusion, and development of the necessary supporting technology. Controlled fusion power, if feasible, would be one of the very few options available to meet the projected exponential rise in power demands. Fusion reactors would offer the following significant advantages: plentiful and inexpensive fuel, inherent safety against nuclear runaway, and minimal environmental impact.

9. Biomedical and Environmental Research Program - Operating costs for the Biomedical and Environmental Research Program are estimated at $98.7 million for 1974, compared with estimated costs of $93.1 million in 1973 and actual costs of $88.5 million in 1972. This program will continue to generate information required by the AEC in both its operations and regulatory functions to assure the safety of man and the preservation of his environment. Health studies will be conducted which evaluate the adverse effects of radiation on man and to explore new uses of radioisotopes and radiation in early detection and treatment of disease, Environmental studies will continue to determine more information about the distribution, transport and fate of radionuclides in the environment, Biological studies are necessary to obtain fundamental information necessary for quantitative assessment of the effects of radiation on living organisms Finally, techniques and analyses will be conducted toward the development of advanced technology in support of the health, environmental and biological research studies. The major portion of the total program effort is either directly or indirectly related to environmental research and development activities. In 1974 environmental R&D accounts for $71.2 million of the program request. This compares with an estimate of $66.4 million in 1973 and actual costs of $62.6 million in 1972.

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