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$18.438 Adult education programs.
A recipient that operates an adult education program or activity may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons from the program or activity. The recipient shall take into account the needs of these persons in determining the aid, benefits, or services to be provided under the program or activity.
handicapped students an equal opportunity for participation in these services and activities.
(2) Nonacademic and extracurricular services and activities may include counseling services, physical reational athletics, transportation, health services, recreational activities, special interest groups or clubs sponsored by the recipient, referrals to agencies which provide assistance to handicapped persons, and employment of students, including both employment by the recipient and assistance in making available outside employment.
(b) Counseling services. Elementary, secondary, and adult education programs that receive or benefit from Federal financial assistance and that provide personal, academic, or vocational counseling, guidance, or placement services to their students shall provide these services without discrimination on the basis of handicap and shall ensure that qualified handicapped students are not counseled toward more restrictive career objectives than are nonhandicapped students with similar interests and abilities.
(c) Physical education and athletics. (1) In providing physical education courses and athletics and similar programs and activities to any of its students, an elementary, secondary, or adult education program or activity that receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance may not discriminate on the basis of handicap. A recipient that offers physical education courses or that operates sponsors interscholastic, club, or intramural activities shall provide to qualified handicapped students an equal opportunity for participation in these activities.
(2) A recipient may offer to handicapped students physical education and athletic activities that are separate or different from those offered to nonhandicapped students only if separation or differentiation is consistent with the requirements of $18.434 and only if no qualified handicapped student is denied the opportunity to compete for teams or to participate in courses that are not separate or different.
$ 18.439 Private education programs.
(a) A recipient that operates a private elementary or secondary education program may not on the basis of handicap, exclude a qualified handicapped person from that program if the person can, with minor adjustments, be provided an appropriate education, as defined in $18.433(b)(1), within the recipient's program.
(b) A recipient may not charge more for providing an appropriate education to handicapped persons than to nonhandicapped persons except to the extent that any additional charge is justified by a substantial increase in cost to the recipient.
(c) A recipient to which this section applies that operates special education programs shall operate those programs in accordance with 88 18.435 and 18.436. Each recipient to which this section applies is subject to $$18.434, 18.437, and 18.438.
Sections 18.441 through 18.447 apply to postsecondary education programs and activities that receive or benefit from Federal financial assistance from the Department of Veterans Affairs and to recipients that operate or receive or benefit from Federal financial assistance for the operation of such programs or activities.
§ 18.442 Admissions and recruitment.
(a) General. Qualified handicapped persons may not, on the basis of handicap, be denied admission or be subjected to discrimination in admission or recruitment by a recipient.
(b) Admission. In administering its admission policies, a recipient;
(1) The recipient shall state clearly on any written questionnaire used for this purpose or make clear orally if no written questionnaire is used that the information requested is intended for use solely in connection with its remedial action obligations or its voluntary action efforts; and
(2) The recipient shall state clearly that the information is being requested on a voluntary basis, that it will be kept confidential, that refusal to provide it will not subject the applicant to any adverse treatment, and that it will be used only in accordance with this part.
(d) Validity studies. For the purpose of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, a recipient may base prediction equations on first year grades, but shall conduct periodic validity studies against the criterion of overall success in the education program or activity in question to monitor the general validity of the test scores.
(1) May not apply limitations on the number or proportion of handicapped persons who may be admitted;
(2) May not use any test or criterion for admission that has a disproportionate, adverse effect on handicapped persons or any class of handicapped persons unless:
(i) The test or criterion, as used by the recipient, has been validated as a predictor of success in the education program or activity in question; and
(ii) Alternate tests or criteria that have a less disproportionate, adverse effect are not shown by the Secretary to be available;
(3) Shall assure itself that:
(i) Admissions tests are selected and administered to best ensure that, when a test is administered to an applicant who has a handicap that impairs sensory, manual, or speaking skills, the test results accurately reflect the applicant's aptitude or achievement level or whatever other factors the test purports to measure, rather than reflect the applicant's impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills (except where those skills are the factors that the test purports to measure);
(ii) Admissions tests that are designed for persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills are offered as often and in as timely a manner as are other admissions tests; and
(iii) Admissions tests are administered in facilities that, on the whole, are accessible to handicapped persons; and
(4) Except as provided in paragraph (C) of this section, may not make preadmission inquiries as to whether an applicant for admission is a handicapped person. After admission, the recipient may inquire on a confidential basis as to handicaps that may require accommodation.
(c) Preadmission inquiry exception. When a recipient is taking remedial action to correct the effects of past discrimination under $ 18.406(a) or when a recipient is taking voluntary action to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited participation in its federally assisted program or activity under $18.406(b), the recipient may invite applicants for admission to indicate whether and to what extent they are handicapped.
$18.443 General treatment of students.
(a) No qualified handicapped student shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any academic, research, occupational training, housing, health insurance, counseling, financial aid, physical education, athletics, recreation, transportation, other extracurricular, or other program or activity operated by a recipient to which this subpart applies.
(b) A recipient that considers participation by students in education programs or activities not operated wholly by the recipient as part of, or equivalent to, an education program or activity operated by the recipient shall assure itself that the other education program or activity, as a whole, provides an equal opportunity for the participation of qualified handicapped persons.
(c) A recipient to which this subpart applies may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude any qualified handicapped student from any course, course of study, or other part of its education program or activity.
(d) A recipient shall operate its programs and activities in the most integrated setting appropriate.
hearing impairments, readers in libraries for students with visual impairments, classroom equipment adapted for use by students with manual impairments, and other similar services and actions. Recipients need not provide attendants, individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use or study, or other devices or services of a personal nature.
$18.444 Academic adjustments.
(a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications to its academic requirements to ensure that these requirements do not discriminate or have the effect of discriminating, on the basis of handicap, against a qualified handicapped applicant or student. Modifications may include changes in the length of time permitted for the completion of degree requirements, substitution of specific courses required for the completion of degree requirements, and adaptation of the manner in which specific courses are conducted. Academic requirements that the recipient can demonstrate are essential to the program of instruction being pursued by the student or to any directly related licensing requirement will not be regarded as discriminatory within the meaning of this section.
(b) Other rules. A recipient may not impose upon handicapped students other rules, such as the prohibition of tape recorders in classrooms or guide dogs in campus buildings, that have the effect of limiting the participation of handicapped students in the recipient's education program or activity.
(c) Course examinations. In its course examinations or other procedures for evaluating students' academic achievement in its program, a recipient shall provide methods for evaluating the achievement of students who have a handicap that impairs sensory, manual, or speaking skills that will best ensure that the results of the evaluation represent the students' achievement in the course, rather than reflect the students' impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills (except where such skills are the factors that the test purports to measure).
(d) Auxiliary aids. (1) A recipient shall ensure that no qualified handicapped student is denied the benefits of, excluded from participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under the education program or activity operated by the recipient because of the absence of educational auxiliary aids for students with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills.
(2) Auxiliary aids may include taped texts, interpreters or other effective methods of making orally delivered materials available to students with
8 18.445 Housing.
(a) Housing provided by a recipient. A recipient that provides housing to its nonhandicapped students shall provide comparable, convenient, and accessible housing to qualified handicapped students at the same cost as to others. At the end of the transition period provided for in $18.422(e), this housing shall be available in sufficient quantity and variety so that the scope of handicapped students' choice of living accommodations is, as a whole, comparable to that of nonhandicapped students.
(b) Other housing. A recipient that assists any agency, organization, or person in making housing available to any of its students shall assure itself that such housing is, as a whole, made available in a manner that does not result in discrimination on the basis of handicap.
$ 18.446 Financial and employment as
sistance to students. (a) Provision of financial assistance. (1) In providing financial assistance to qualified handicapped persons, a recipient may not:
(i) On the basis of handicap, provide less assistance than is provided to nonhandicapped persons, limit eligibility for assistance, or otherwise discriminate; or
(ii) Assist any entity or person that provides assistance to any of the recipient's students in a manner that discriminates against qualified handicapped persons on the basis of handicap.
(2) A recipient may administer or assist in the administration of scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of financial assistance established under wills, trusts, bequests, or similar legal instruments that require awards to be and certification requirements that may present obstacles to handicapped persons in their pursuit of particular careers.
(c) Social organizations. A recipient that provides significant assistance to fraternities, sororities, or similar organizations shall assure itself that the membership practices of these organizations do not permit discrimination otherwise prohibited
88 18.441 through 18.447.
HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES
Subpart F applies to health, and other social service programs and activities that receive or benefit from Federal financial assistance from the Department of Veterans Affairs and to recipients that operate or receive or benefit from Federal financial assistance for the operation of such programs or activities.
made on the basis of factors that discriminate or have the effect of discriminating on the basis of handicap only if the overall effect of the award of scholarships, fellowships, and other forms of financial assistance is not discriminatory on the basis of handicap.
(b) Assistance in making available outside employment. A recipient that assists any agency, organization, or person in providing employment opportunities to any of its students shall assure itself that these employment opportunities, as a whole, are made available in a manner that would not violate $8 18.411 through 18.414 if the opportunities were provided by the recipient.
(c) Employment of students by recipients. A recipient that employs any of its students may not do so in a manner that violates $8 18.411 through 18.414. $18.447 Nonacademic services.
(a) Physical education and athletics. (1) In providing physical education courses and athletics and similar programs and activities to any of its students, a recipient may not discriminate on the basis of handicap. A recipient that offers physical education courses or that operates or sponsors intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics shall provide to qualified handicapped students an equal opportunity for participation in these activities.
(2) A recipient may offer to handicapped students physical education and athletic activities that are separate or different only if separation or differentiation is consistent with the requirements of $18.443(d) and only if no qualified handicapped student is denied the opportunity to compete for teams or to participate in courses that are not separate or different.
(b) Counseling and placement services. A recipient that provides personal, academic, or vocational counseling, guidance, or placement services to its students shall provide these services without discrimination on the basis of handicap. The recipient shall ensure that qualified handicapped students are not counseled toward more restrictive career objectives than are nonhandicapped students with similar interests and abilities. This requirement does not preclude a recipient from providing factual information about licensing
$ 18.452 Health and other social serv.
ices. (a) General. In providing health, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap:
(1) Deny a qualified handicapped person these benefits or services;
(2) Give a qualified handicapped person the opportunity to receive benefits or services that are not equal to those offered nonhandicapped persons.
(3) Provide a qualified handicapped person with benefits or services that are not as effective (as defined in $18.404(b)(2)) as the benefits or services provided to others;
(4) Provide benefits or services in a manner that limits or has the effect of limiting the participation of qualified handicapped persons; or
(5) Provide different or separate benefits or services to handicapped persons except where
necessary to provide qualified handicapped persons with benefits and services that are as effective as those provided to others.
(b) Notice. A recipient that provides notice concerning benefits or services or written material concerning waivers of rights of consent to treatment shall ensure that qualified handicapped persons, including those with impaired PROCEDURES
The procedural provisions applicable to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 apply to this part. These procedures are found in 18.6 through 18.11 and part 18b of this chapter.
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART D OF PART 18
STATUTORY PROVISIONS TO WHICH
sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective notice because of their handicap.
(c) Emergency treatment for the hearing impaired. A recipient hospital that provides health services or benefits shall establish a procedure for effective communication with persons with impaired hearing for the purpose of providing emergency care.
(d) Auxiliary aids. (1) A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall provide appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to give these persons an equal opportunity to benefit from the service in question.
(2) The Secretary may require recipients with fewer than fifteen employees to provide auxiliary aids where the provision of aids would not significantly impair the ability of the recipient to provide its benefits or services.
(3) Auxiliary aids may include brailled and taped material, interpreters, and aids for persons with impaired hearing or vision.
$18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts.
A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, in the admission of that person for treatment of the medical condition, or in the treatment of the medical condition because of the person's drug or alcohol abuse or alcoholism.
1. Payments to State Homes (38 U.S.C. 1741
1743). 2. State home facilities for furnishing domi
ciliary, nursing home, and hospital care
(38 U.S.C. 8131-8137). 3. Transfers for nursing home care; adult day
health care (38 U.S.C. 1720). 4. Sharing of medical facilities, equipment,
and information (38 U.S.C. 8151-8157). 5. Assistance in establishing new state med
ical schools, grants to affiliated medical schools; assistance to health manpower training institutions (38 U.S.C. Chapter
82). 6. Approval of educational institutions (38
U.S.C. 104). 7. Medical care for survivors and dependents
of certain veterans (38 U.S.C. 1713). 8. Space and office facilities for representa
tives of State employment service (38
U.S.C. 7725(4)). 9. Space and office facilities for representa
tives of recognized national service orga
nizations (38 U.S.C. 5902(a)(2)). 10. All-volunteer force educational assist
ance, vocational rehabilitation postVietnam era veterans educational assistance; veterans educational assistance, survivors' and dependents' educational assistance, and administration of educational benefits (38 U.S.C. Chapters 30,
31, 32, 34, 35 and 36 respectively). 11. Treatment and rehabilitation for alcohol
or drug dependence or abuse disabilities
(38 U.S.C. 1720A). 12. Aid to States for establishment, expan
sion, and improvement of veterans ceme
teries (38 U.S.C. 2408). 13. Department of Veterans Affairs health
professional scholarship program (38
U.S.C. 7601-7655). 14. Emergency veterans job training (Pub. L.
$18.454 Education of institutionalized
persons. A recipient that operates or supervises a program or activity for persons who are institutionalized because of handicap and is responsible for providing training shall ensure that each qualified handicapped person, as defined in $18.403(k)(2), in its program or activity is provided an appropriate education, as defined in § 18.433(b). Nothing in this section shall be interpreted as altering in any way the obligations of recipients under $$18.431 through 18.439. [45 FR 63268, Sept. 24, 1980; 51 FR 12702, Apr. 15, 1986)
98–77, 97 Stat. 443-452).
[45 FR 63268, Sept. 24, 1980, as amended at 51 FR 10385, Mar. 26, 1986; 51 FR 12702, Apr. 15, 1986]