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(1) With respect to employment, a handicapped person who, with reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the job in question;

(2) With respect to public elementary, secondary, or adult educational services, a handicapped person:

(i) Of an age during which nonhandicapped persons are provided such services;

(ii) Of any age during which it is mandatory under State laws to provide such services to handicapped persons; or

(iii) To whom a State is required to provide a free appropriate public education under section 612 of the Education of the Handicapped Act; and

(3) With respect to postsecondary and vocational education services, a handicapped person who meets the academic and technical standards requisite to admission or participation in the recipient's education program or activity; and

(4) With respect to other services, a handicapped person who meets the essential eligibility requirements for the receipt of such services.

(1) Handicap means any condition or characteristic that renders a person a handicapped person as defined in paragraph (j) of this section.

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service that is not equal to that afforded others;

(iii) Provide a qualified handicapped person with an aid, benefit, or service that is not as effective as that provided to others;

(iv) Provide different or separate aid, benefits, or services to handicapped persons or to any class of handicapped persons unless such action is necessary to provide qualified handicapped persons with aid, benefits, or services that are as effective as those provided to others;

(V) Aid or perpetuate discrimination against a qualified handicapped person by providing significant assistance to an agency, organization, or person that discriminates on the basis of handicap in providing any aid, benefit, or service to beneficiaries of the recipient's program;

(vi) Deny a qualified handicapped person the opportunity to participate as a member of planning or advisory boards; or

(vii) Otherwise limit qualified handicapped person in the enjoyment of any right, privilege, advantage, or opportunity enjoyed by others receiving an aid, benefit, or service.

(2) Aids, benefits, and services, to be equally effective, are not required to produce the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped and nonhandicapped persons, but must give handicapped persons equal opportunity to obtain the same result, to gain the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement, in the most integrated setting appropriate to the person's needs.

(3) Despite the existence of separate or different programs or activities provided in accordance with this part, a recipient may not deny a qualified handicapped person the opportunity to participate in programs or activities that are not separate or different.

(4) A recipient may not, directly or through contractual or other arrangements, utilize criteria or methods of administration that:

(i) Have the effect of subjecting qualified handicapped persons to discrimination on the basis of handicap,

(ii) Have the purpose or effect of defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the

§ 18.404 Discrimination prohibited.

(a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance.

(b) Discriminatory actions prohibited. (1) A recipient, in providing an aid, benefit, or service, may not, directly or through contractual, licensing, other arrangements, on the basis of handicap:

(i) Deny a qualified handicapped person the opportunity to participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or service that is equal to that afforded others;

(ii) Afford a qualified handicapped person an opportunity to participate in or benefit from the aid, benefit, or

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recipient's program with respect to handicapped persons, or

(iii) Perpetuate the discrimination of another recipient if both recipients are subject to common administrative control or are agencies of the same State.

(5) In determining the site or location of a facility, an applicant for assistance or a recipient may not make selections that:

(i) Have the effect of excluding handicapped persons from, deny them the benefits of, or otherwise subject them to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance, or

(ii) Have the purpose or effect of defeating or substantially impairing the accomplishment of the objective of the program or activity with respect to handicapped persons.

(6) As used in this section, the aid, benefit, or service provided under a program or activity receiving or benefiting from Federal financial assistance includes any aid, benefit, or service provided in or through a facility that has been constructed, expanded, altered, leased or rented, or otherwise acquired, in whole of in part, with Federal financial assistance.

(c) Programs limited by Federal law. The exclusion of nonhandicapped persons or the exclusion of a specific class of handicapped persons from a program limited by Federal statue or Executive order to a different class of handicapped persons is not prohibited by this part.

(d) Special communication. Recipients shall take appropriate action to ensure that communications with their applicants, employees, and beneficiaries are available to persons with impaired vision and hearing.

the case of a subsequent transfer, the transferee, for the period during which the real property or structures are used for the purpose for which Federal financial assistance is extended or for another purpose involving the provisions of similar services or benefits.

(2) Where Federal financial assistance is extended to provide personal property, the assurance will obligate the recipient for the period during which it retains ownership or possession of the property.

(3) In all other cases the assurance will obligate the recipient for the period during which Federal financial assistance is extended.

(c) Extent of application to institution or facility. An assurance shall apply to the entire institution or facility unless the applicant establishes, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that the institution's practices in designated parts or programs of the institution will in no way affect its practices in the program of the institution for which Federal financial assistance is sought, or the beneficiaries of or participants in such a program. If the assistance is being received or requested for the construction of a facility or part of a facility, the assurance shall apply to the entire facility and to other facilities operated in connection with the facility.

(d) Covenants. (1) Where Federal financial assistance is provided in the form of real property or interest in the property from the Agency, the instrument effecting or recording this transfer shall contain a covenant running with the land to assure nondiscrimination for the period during which the real property is used for a purpose for which the Federal financial assistance is extended or for another purpose involving the provisions of similar services or benefits.

(2) Where no transfer of property is involved but property is purchased or improved with Federal financial assistance, the recipient shall agree to include the covenant described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section in the instrument effecting or recording any subsequent transfer of property.

(3) Where Federal financial assistance is provided in the form of real property or interest in the property

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from the Agency, the covenant shall also include a condition coupled with a right to be reserved by the Agency to revert title to the property if there is a breach of the covenant. If a transferree of real property proposes to mortgage or otherwise encumber the real property as security for financing construction of new, or improvement of existing, facilities on the property for the purpose for which the property was transferred, the Secretary may, upon request of the transferee and if necessary to accomplish such financing and upon such conditions as considered appropriate, agree to forbear the exercise of the right to revert title for as long as the lien of the mortgage or other encumbrance remains effective.

(e) Other methods of enforcement. (1) Recipients are required to keep such records as the responsible VA official deems necessary for complete and accurate compliance reports. VA can specify intervals for reporting and prescribe the form and content of information required to ascertain whether the recipient has complied or is complying with the law.

(2) Periodic compliance reviews of training establishments will be conducted by VA compliance officers. During these reviews recipients are required to permit access by VA compliance officers during normal business hours to such of their books, records, accounts, facilities and other sources of information including interviews with personnel and trainees as may be pertinent to ascertain compliance with the law.

(3) From study of documentation, results of interviews, and observation of activities during tours of facilities, compliance officers will evaluate recipients' compliance status. [45 FR 63268, Sept. 24, 1980, as amended at 51 FR 10385, Mar. 26, 1986] § 18.406 Remedial action, voluntary ac

tion and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the Secretary finds that a recipient has discriminated against qualified persons on the basis of handicap in violation of section 504 or this part, the recipient shall take such remedial action as the Secretary considers necessary to overcome the effects of the discrimination.

(2) Where a recipient is found to have discriminated against qualified persons on the basis of handicap in violation of section 504 or this part and where another recipient exercises control over the recipient that has discriminated, the Secretary, where appropriate, may require either or both recipients to take remedial action.

(3) The Secretary may, where necessary to overcome the effects of discrimination in violation of section 504 or this part, require a recipient to take remedial action with respect to:

(i) Handicapped persons who are no longer participants in the recipient's program but who were participants in the program when such discrimination occurred;

(ii) Handicapped persons who would have been participants in the program had the discrimination not occurred; or

(iii) Handicapped persons presently in the program, but not receiving full benefits or equal and integrated treatment within the program.

(b) Voluntary action. A recipient may take steps, in addition to any action that is required by this part, to overcome the effects of conditions that resulted in limited participation in the recipient's program or activity by qualified handicapped persons.

(C) Self-evaluation. (1) A recipient shall, within one year of the effective date of this part:

(i) Evaluate with the assistance of interested persons, including handicapped persons or organizations representing handicapped persons, its current policies and practices and the effects of the policies and practices that do not or may not meet the requirements of this part;

(ii) Modify, after consultation with interested persons, including handicapped persons or organizations representing handicapped persons, any policies and practices that do not meet the requirements of this part; and

(iii) Take, after consultation with interested persons, including handicapped persons or organizations representing handicapped persons, appropriate remedial steps to eliminate the effects of any discrimination that resulted from adherence to these policies and practices.

(2) A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall, for at least three years following completion of the evaluation required under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, maintain on file, make available for public inspection, and provide to the Secretary upon request:

(i) A list of the interested persons consulted;

(ii) A description of areas examined and any problems identified; and

(iii) A description of any modifications made and of any remedial steps taken.

(3) Recipients who become such more than one year after the effective date of these regulations shall complete these self-evaluation requirements within one year after becoming recipients of Federal financial assistance. (The information collection requirements contained in paragraph (c) have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2900-0415) [45 FR 63268, Sept. 24, 1980, as amended at 49 FR 32574, Aug. 15, 1984)

does not discriminate on the basis of handicap in violation of section 504 and this part. The notification shall state, where appropriate, that the recipient does not discriminate in admission or access to, or treatment, or employment in, its programs and activities. The notification shall also include an identification of the responsible employee designated under $18.407. A recipient shall make the initial notification required by this paragraph within 90 days of the effective date of this part. Methods of initial and continuing notification may include the posting of notices, publication in newspapers and magazines, placement of notices in recipient's publication, and distribution of memorandums or other written communications.

(b) If a recipient publishes or uses recruitment materials or publications containing general information that it makes available to participants, beneficiaries, applicants, or employees, it shall include in those materials or publications a statement of the policy described in paragraph (a) of this section. A recipient may meet the requirement of this section either by including appropriate inserts in existing materials and publications or by revising and reprinting the materials and publications.

18.407 Designation of responsible em

ployee and adoption of grievance

procedures. (a) Designation of responsible employee. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall designate at least one person to coordinate its efforts to comply with this part.

(b) Adoption of grievance procedures. A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall adopt grievance procedures that incorporate appropriate due process standards and that provide for the prompt and equitable resolution of complaints alleging any action prohibited by this part. Such procedures need not be established with respect to complaints from applicants for employment or from applicants for admission to postsecondary educational institutions.

$18.409 Administrative requirements

for certain recipients. The Secretary may require any recipient with fewer than fifteen employees, or any class of such recipients, to comply with $$18.407 and 18.408 in whole or in part, when the Secretary finds a violation of this part or finds that such compliance will not significantly impair the ability of the recipient or class of recipients to provide benefits or services.

8 18.408 Notice.

(a) A recipient that employs fifteen or more persons shall take appropriate initial and continuing steps to notify participants, beneficiaries, applicants, and employees, including those with impaired vision or hearing, and unions or professional organizations holding collective bargaining or professional agreements with the recipient that it

$18.410 Effect of State or local law or

other requirements and effect of

employment opportunities. (a) The obligation to comply with this part is not obviated or alleviated by the existence of any State law or other requirement that, on the basis of handicap, imposes prohibitions or limits upon the eligibility of qualified handicapped persons to receive services

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(6) Fringe benefits available by virtue of employment, whether or not administered by the recipient;

(7) Selection and financial support for training, including apprenticeship, professional meetings, conferences, and other related activities, and selection for leaves of absence to pursue training;

(8) Employer sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and

(9) Any other term, condition, privilege of employment.

(c) Collective bargaining agreements. A recipient's obligation to comply with this subpart is not affected by any inconsistent term of any collective bargaining agreement to which it is a party.

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$18.411 Discrimination prohibited.

(a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies.

(2) A recipient shall make all decisions concerning employment under any program or activity to which this part applies in a manner which ensures that discrimination on the basis of handicap does not occur and may not limit, segregate, or classify applicants or employees in any way that adversely affects their opportunities or status because of handicap.

(3) A recipient may not participate in a contractual or other relationship that has the effect of subjecting qualified handicapped applicants or employees to discrimination in employment. The relationships referred to in this section include relationships with employment and referral agencies, with organizations providing administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient, and with organizations providing training and apprenticeship programs.

(b) Specific activities. Nondiscrimination in employment applies to:

(1) Recruitment, advertising, and the processing of applications for employment;

(2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff, and rehiring;

(3) Rates of pay or other forms of compensation and changes in compensation;

(4) Job assignments, job classifications, organizational structures, position descriptions, lines of progression, and seniority lists;

(5) Leaves of absence, sick leave, or any other leave;

or

8 18.412 Reasonable accommodation.

(a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of a handicapped applicant or employee if such accommodation would enable that person to perform the essential functions of the job unless the recipient can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program.

(b) Reasonable accommodation may include:

(1) Making facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons; and

(2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters and other similar actions.

(c) In determining under paragraph (a) of this section whether an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program, factors to be considered include:

(1) The overall size of the recipient's program with respect to number of employees, number and type of facilities, and size of budget;

(2) The type of the recipient's operation, including the composition and structure of the recipient's work force; and

(3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed.

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