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percent increase in registrations so that we are beginning to fall
behind both in the registration and the cataloging procedures of the

Copyright Fee Collections

Secretary Monroney. This is the Office I believe you said that turns
in nearly $2 million in fees from the registration of copyrights?

Mr. Kaminstein. That is right, if you count the value of material

Dr. Mttmford. On page 104 of our justification book there is a
table which shows the fees in cash and the estimated value of ma-
terials that are received and transferred to the Library's collections.
We are receiving 112 percent of the cost of the appropriation if we
include the value of the materials along with the fees.

Senator Monroney. This would merely give you enough help to
keep updated with your 19-percent increase in the workload.

Mr. Kaminstein. That is right.

Dr. Mumford. Actually, I think Mr. Kaminstein's latest figure is
about 25 percent over that period from 1961.

Mr. Kaminstein. Right now it is 19. If you go to the 1966 esti-
mate, it would be an increase in registrations of 25 percent.

Senator Monroney. You mean more people are writing more books?

Mr. Kaminstein. Apparently.

Senator Monroney. Are pamphlets copyrighted?

Mr. Kaminstein. Oh, yes, sir; but this includes the whole range
of literary materials, music, maps, motion pictures.

Dr. Mumford. Even three-dimentional objects.

Mr. Kaminstein. Works of art.

Senator Monroney. A copyright is $6.55 per copy?

Mr. Kaminstein. That figure for the value of books transferred
to the Library was taken from Publisher's Weekly in January 1964
so that it is already out. of date. That is the average cost of books in
some 19 categories, and it does not include the cost of acquisition.


Senator Monroney. Is that what it costs you to handle them, or is
ithat what it costs the person to get a copyright?

Mr. Kaminstein. No, sir; the cost of the copyright is fixed by statute
and it is $4. This $6.55 per copy is what, it would cost the Library
to buy the materials, but it doesn't include the cost of ordering, and
so on.

Senator Monroney. Through copyright how many copies of the
books do you get?

Mr. Kamixstein. Two, sir.

Senator Monroney. Do you need more than two?

Mr. Kaminstein. The Copyright Office doesn't. The Library

Dr. MnwFORD. For a book that is in great demand it may be neces-
sary to supplement those two to meet the needs of the Congress and
of governmental agencies.

Senator Monroxf.y. In other words, they pay $4 for the copyright

Mr. Kaminstein. That is right, sir.

Senator Monroney. It costs you $6.55 per copy to acquire, is that correct?

Mr. Kamixstein. No, sir. What we have done is to take the fees actually received by the Copyright Office and to that figure we have added the value of material that is actually taken over by the Library.

The Library has access to all our material. The value of the material actually turned over to the Library has been calculated and the $6 figure is what it would cost the Library to buy the books they select.

Senator Monroney. Actually the income from the book registration and from the periodical registration does not total out at $1,987,819, is that correct.

Dr. M r M Koiio. No, sir.

Senator Monroney. This is a figure arrived at in lieu of acquisition by the Library.

Dr. Mttmford. Yes.

Mrs. Hamer. We would have to spend our book-purchase money to buy much of this material if we did not receive it by copyright. Thus it seems to us legitimate to add to the copyright fees received the value of the material the Library gets through copyright.

Senator Monroney. Will you put in the record the total amount of cash that is received in Copyright Office? Do vou have that handy?

Dr. Mumford. Yes, sir. It was $1,133,546 in fiscal 1964.


Senator Monroney. In the Legislative Reference Service you have four additional positions. You are up to 222. There has been a great deal of discussion of this in the Legislative Reorganization Committee. Several members have expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of the work of the Legislative Reference Service.

A good portion of the blame lies with the Congress. It is being misused by some Members asking for help on schoolpapers, and other academic work for constituents. The numbers of requests that the Legislative Reference Service receives, that is, requests by Congress, apparently do indicate a very great use of this by Congressmen relying on it to answer queries or furnish data that is not for the benefit of Congress, but for the benefit of constituents. We feel unless seniething is done to get it back as the main research pool for the Congress instead of the purpose it is being misused for. some change in the organizational plan will have to take place.

Senator Yarborottoh. Mr. Chairman, doesn't the law authorize Members of Congress to ask for this material only for ourselves?

Senator Moxroney. I don't know whether it does or not. I know the number of requests that we have had each year. You have a breakdown on these items, have you not?

Dr. Mttmford. Dr. Elsbree is here. May I ask him to speak to this? We have a situation of an ever-increasing number of inquiries all across the board. Our specific request here, however, was only in the area of flie growing congressional need for assistance in science and technology and its relationship to public policy. I would be glad if you would Vt Dr. E'sbree elabornte upon this.

Senator Moxroney. Yes.


Dr. Elsbree. Mr. Chairman, I think it might be useful to illustrate the problems we have, and they are critical in this session particularly.

Just to summarize very briefly the workload situation in the January-May period, the total number of answers in this period was 54,818. This was compared to 49,658 in the same period last year, an increase of 10 percent.

These figures very definitely understate the increase in workload, for these reasons:

First, in January, as is customary with a new Congress, the total wa.s below that for the preceding January, and the increase for the period February througn May was 15 percent. While constituent inquiries outnumbered Member and committee inquiries, as they always do in this period—the total of Member and committee inquiries was 28,052, and the total of constituent inquiries was 31,766—the rate of increase for Member and committee inquiries was 17 percent compared to the overall increase of 10 percent, whereas constituent inquiries increased by 6 percent.

The preparation of reports or other forms of written response increased in the period January through May by 29 percent, those answered by telephone, 8 percent, those answered by sending prepared materials. 8 percent.

In tlie first category, on the basis of figures that I have from use of the Library's computer, written responses in the last 2 or 3 years have taken alxnit 60 percent of all time spent in reference and research work.

Senator Monroxey. How much?


Dr. Ki.sbhf.k. The written requests we have to answer by special preparation in writing take about three-fifths of all reference and research time. It takes much longer to handle the requests that have to be answered in writing than it does to answer requests by telephone, or by sending prepared materials.

Senator Monroxey. Do you feel that all these written responses are fpu^ie Congressmen and Senators, or do they also go out to answer constituent requests? There are a lot of requests, I am afraid, that are coming into you from the Senators and Congressmen for use of constituents. That wouldn't l>e necessarily a true gage of your constituent load.

What we are thinking about, and evidence is pointing to, is that maybe it would lie wise to split the Legislative Reference Service.

Mr. Ei.srrk.e. Senator. I nave not in the past presentations indicated what we have done in this respect. In 19fil we did split. We set up a unit to handle the simpler types of constituent requests. Last year, because we felt this worked so well, we attempted to enlarge this unit.

We did create a larger unit to handle most constituent requests, all except M certain number which really do need some special attention, and also to handle a very large number of general reference requests from Members.

Newspaper searches, for example, can be very time consuming. We don't want to put a subject specialist in the Far East on tracking down something a Member wants to find that he thinks was in the paper.

Senator Monroney. Exactly what we are trying to avoid.

Mr. Elsbree. Right. Now, we created this larger unit and in this period January through May, for example, of the 31,766 constituent inquiries received, 20,371 were handled m this unit, which is headed by a GS-11 and manned by GS-5 and GS-7 reference assistants.

Senator Monroney. Before you leave that, are these men perhaps interns and people who are working for degrees or doing postgraduate work in colleges to get experience?

Mr. Elsbree. The temporaries are virtually all in that category. Some are law school students going to night school. Some of the permanent employees have some library training and then they develop A little bit of speciality in, say, economics. We hire quite a few temporaries.

Senator Monroney. This I think would be a very good finishing school for a lot of researchers in their early years to learn where and how to find this material.

Mr. Elsbree. It is, and they do very satisfactory work. The problem, Mr. Chairman, is that with the tremendous increase that we have this year this unit simply was swamped. We gaA'e it all the help we could.

Senator Monroney. This is the unit we are talking about for these smaller requests.

Mr. Elsbree. Yes, sir. About 11,000 of these constituent inquiries had to go to some of the other divisions. I don't have any desire whatever to minimize the problem of constituent requests. That is the worst headache in some respects we have, but I also would not want to create the illusion, Mr. Chairman, that we would solve the problem for research people by taking these 11,000 constituent requests we had this year away from them, because, as we can determine from our figures, the total research and reference time spent on the 53 percent of constituent requests in 1964 was about 17 percent of all reference and research time.

We will later have a breakdown to show what the grade level was of persons handling these requests. The 20,0001 referred to earlier were handled by no one higher than GS-11 and most of them by GS-5's and GS-7'*.

Congressional Request

However, it is true that at this time of the year, February through May, when we had the heaviest workload of Member requests and commit tee requests, we did have to shift some constituent requests. I have had my ears burned off, frankly, more frequently by complaints about delay in handling constituent requests or not having fast enough service on translations than I have on research reports.

One Member called me recently and said, "Look, I have a newspaper search. I am told that your reference assistance are very busy, but I know you must have somebody on that staff of yours over there who can find this material for me and I don't care what his job description is.*"

This is the problem. Everybody must pitch in, just as committee staff members pitch in, and the staffs in Members' offices, in order not to have too much delav.

But the worst problem about constituent requests is the effect it has on the Service's morale. It has a devastating effect on our research people, who are producing over 4,000 rather substantial studies a year for Members and committes, because the image is created all the time that they are writing student essavs and it is terribly demoralizing. I believe the direction we have taken since 1961 is the proper one: creating a special unit for not just constituent requests, but also Members' general reference requests, which are more time consuming. Our people help in the preparation of dedicatory remarks, commemorative statements, and Washington's Birthday, Fourth of July, Memorial Day, nationality day remarks. These are really quite time consuming and unless we can build up a large enough staff to handle more or this type of work, I think we will continue to have a very serious morale problem.

All this does also affect the quality of research, as well as staff morale; but the real problem in maintaining quality research is the increasing number of Member and committee requests. In this picture from January through May, it is the increase in the serious type of Member or committee requests which has put an increasing burden on the subject specialist.

Senator Monroney. What percentage would you estimate the committee requests are vis-a-vis 1 he Member requests?

Mr. Elsbree. There are about 6,000 committee requests: the comn ittee requests comprise, I think, 6 percent of all requests.

Senator Monroney. Six.

Mr. Elsbree. Yes; and they absorb about 15 percent of the total time, direct reference and research time. Constituent requests comprise about 53 percent in terms of number of inquiries.

Senator Monhoney. Fifty-three percent.

Mr. Elsbree. In terms of number of inquiries.

Senator Moxroxey. More than half of the number of inquiries consists of constituent requests.

Mr. Ei,sukek. That is right: 17 percent, as nearly as we- can estimate it, of total reference and research time.

Senator Moxroxey. But a lot of time that can be taken care of by mimeograph and Xerox by photocopies.

Mr. Elbbkee. Yes.

Dr. MrMFORn. And give away.

Mr. Evwree. Member requests comprise the remaining 41 percent in total nuinber and T Mieve 68 percent in terms of research and reference time.


Senator Moxroxkt. I am asking this question for Senator Knchel who has requested it be asked. He says:

Some very excellent work Is done by the Legislative Reference Service. Library of Congress. Many of these studies are mimeographed. Tho dinVtilty arises (tint other Senators and their assistants are not nwnre of these studies. Would it be possible to circulate a nilmeocrapheil list once a month to those Senator* wh« express an Interest In each service so we coald then check oft* the Items of lnten»st to us and receive them for use in our offices?

Mr. Ei,Shrek. Yes, sir. The Appropriations Committee, quite a number of years ago, put in a prohibition about publications and this was read by the Legislative Keference Sen-ice at the time to mean

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