## Alan Turing: The EnigmaA gripping story of mathematics, science, computing, war history, cryptography, and homosexual persecution and liberation. Hodges tells how Turing's revolutionary idea of 1936-- the concept of a universal machine-- laid the foundation for the modern computer. Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. This work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. Despite his wartime service, Turing was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program-- all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. This New York Times bestselling biography of the founder of computer science and artificial intelligence is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. --Excerpted from 2014 version, published by Princeton University Press. |

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Page 105

Next came a most important idea : The behaviour of the computer at any moment

is determined by the symbols which he is observing , and his ' state of

that moment . We may suppose that there is a bound B to the number of symbols

...

Next came a most important idea : The behaviour of the computer at any moment

is determined by the symbols which he is observing , and his ' state of

**mind**' atthat moment . We may suppose that there is a bound B to the number of symbols

...

Page 106

It may be that some of these changes necessarily involve a change of state of

following : ( A ) A possible change ( a ) of symbol together with a possible change

...

It may be that some of these changes necessarily involve a change of state of

**mind**. The most general single operation must therefore be taken to be one of thefollowing : ( A ) A possible change ( a ) of symbol together with a possible change

...

Page 414

In particular , he seized on Gödel ' s theorem as a proof that

something that was beyond any mechanical system . It was this subject that most

engaged Alan and Polanyi in discussion . Alan would run over to the Polanyi

home ...

In particular , he seized on Gödel ' s theorem as a proof that

**mind**would dosomething that was beyond any mechanical system . It was this subject that most

engaged Alan and Polanyi in discussion . Alan would run over to the Polanyi

home ...

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able Alan Turing Alan's allowed American appeared applied asked Bletchley boys brain British calculation called Cambridge complete connection continued course discussion effect electronic engineering Enigma experience explained fact German give given hand homosexual human idea important instructions intelligence interest kind King's knew later less letter logical look machine Manchester March mathematician mathematics matter means mechanical method mind move nature never Office once operations particular perhaps person physical plans play position possible practical principle probably problem quantum mechanics question reason result scientific secret showed suggested symbols taken talk theory thing thought took turn universal von Neumann wanted whole writing wrote