## Alan Turing: The EnigmaA gripping story of mathematics, science, computing, war history, cryptography, and homosexual persecution and liberation. Hodges tells how Turing's revolutionary idea of 1936-- the concept of a universal machine-- laid the foundation for the modern computer. Turing brought the idea to practical realization in 1945 with his electronic design. This work was directly related to Turing's leading role in breaking the German Enigma ciphers during World War II, a scientific triumph that was critical to Allied victory in the Atlantic. Despite his wartime service, Turing was eventually arrested, stripped of his security clearance, and forced to undergo a humiliating treatment program-- all for trying to live honestly in a society that defined homosexuality as a crime. This New York Times bestselling biography of the founder of computer science and artificial intelligence is the definitive account of an extraordinary mind and life. --Excerpted from 2014 version, published by Princeton University Press. |

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Page 102

In exactly the same way , therefore , the computable could give rise to the

uncomputable , by

observation , Alan could see that the answer to Hilbert ' s question was ' no ' .

In exactly the same way , therefore , the computable could give rise to the

uncomputable , by

**means**of a diagonal argument . As soon as he had made thatobservation , Alan could see that the answer to Hilbert ' s question was ' no ' .

Page 162

In practice , the words of the message would first be encoded into numerals by

take this ' plain - text , say 6728 5630 8923 , 9620 6745 2397 , 5348 1375 0210

and ...

In practice , the words of the message would first be encoded into numerals by

**means**of a standard code - book . The job of the cipher clerk would then be totake this ' plain - text , say 6728 5630 8923 , 9620 6745 2397 , 5348 1375 0210

and ...

Page 182

They arise because ( KG ) also

implication for L . Similarly ( NQ ) also

an implication by R . This will give rise to a further implication for L at position 7 .

Clearly ...

They arise because ( KG ) also

**means**( GK ) , and so at position 1 has animplication for L . Similarly ( NQ ) also

**means**( QN ) and hence at position 5 hasan implication by R . This will give rise to a further implication for L at position 7 .

Clearly ...

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able Alan Turing Alan's allowed American appeared applied asked Bletchley boys brain British calculation called Cambridge complete connection continued course discussion effect electronic engineering Enigma experience explained fact German give given hand homosexual human idea important instructions intelligence interest kind King's knew later less letter logical look machine Manchester March mathematician mathematics matter means mechanical method mind move nature never Office once operations particular perhaps person physical plans play position possible practical principle probably problem quantum mechanics question reason result scientific secret showed suggested symbols taken talk theory thing thought took turn universal von Neumann wanted whole writing wrote