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were assembled together at St. Margaret's in Westminster. At what time, as the Priest began the second service at the Holy Table, some of the Puritans or Presbyterians began a Psalm; and were therein followed by the rest in so loud a tune, that the minister was thereby forced to desist from his duty, and leave the preacher to perform the rest of that day's solemnity. This gave encouragement enough to the rest of that party to set as little by the Liturgy in the country, as they did in the city;* especially in all such usages and rights thereof, as they were pleased to bring within the compass of innovations.
“ In which conjuncture happened the impeachment and im. prisonment of eleven of the Bishops: Which made that bench so thin, and the King so weak, that on the 6th of February the Lords consented to the taking away of their votes in Parliament. The news whereof was solemnized in most places of London with bells and bonfires. Nothing remained, but that the King should pass it into act by his royal assent; by some unhappy instrument extorted from him when he was at Canterbury; and signified by his message to the Houses on the fourteenth of that month.+ Which condescension wrought so much unquietness to his mind and conscience, and so much unsecureness to his person, for the rest of his life, that he could scarce truly boast of one day's felicity, till God was pleased to put a final period to his griefs and sorrows. For in relation to the last, we find that the next vote which passed in Parliament, deprived him of his negative voice, and put the whole militia of the kingdom into the bands of the Houses. Which was the first beginning of his following miseries. And looking on him
* And yet this excellent book hath had the fate to be cut in pieces with a peo-knife, and thrown into the fire ; but it is not consumed. At first it was sown in tears, and it is now watered with tears; yet never was any holy thing drowned and extinguished with tears. It began with the martyrdom of the compilers; and the Church bath been vexed ever since by angry spirits, and she was forced to defend it with much trouble aud unquietness. But it is to be hoped, that all these storms are sent but to increase the zeal and confidence of the pious sons of the Church of England. Indeed the greatest danger that ever the Common Prayer Book had, was the indifferency and indevotion of them that used it but as a common blessing: and they who thought it fit for the meapest of the clergy to read prayers, and for themselves only to preach, though they might innocently intend it, yet did not in that action consult the honour of our Liturgy, except where charity or
id interpose. But when excellent tbings go away, and then look back upon us, as our blessed Saviour did ipon St. Peter, we are more moved than by the pearer embraces of a ful, and actual possession. I pray God it may prove so in our case, and that we may not be too willing to be discouraged ; at least that we may not cease to love and to desire what is not publicly permitted to onr practice and profession.” Bishop TAYLOR's Preface to his Apology for authorized and set Forms of Liturgy.
t" They who loved the Church, and were afraid of so great an alteration in the frame and constitution of Parliament, as the utter taking away of one of the three estates of whicb the Parliament is compounded, were infinitely provoked, and lamented the passing that act as an introduction to the entire destructic: of the government of the Church and to the alteration of the religion of the kingdom: And very many, who more cousidered the policy
in the first, he will not spare to let us know in one of his prayers, that the injury which he had to the Bishops of England, did as much grate upon his conscience, as either the permitting of a wrong way of worship to be set up in Scotland, or suffering innocent blood to be shed under colour of justice.t
“By the terror of that army, some of the prevailing-members in the House of Commons, forced the King to pass the bill for triennial Parliaments, and to perpetuate the present session at the will of the Houses ; to give consent for murthering the Earl of Strafford with the sword of justice ; and suffering the Arch-bishop of Canterbury to be banished from him ; to fling away the Star-Chamber, and the High-Commission, and the co-ercive power of Bishops; to part with all his right to tone nage and poundage, to ship-money, and the Act for knighthood;
than the justice and piety of the State, did ever after believe, that, being removed out of the Parliament, the preserving them (the Bishops] in the kingdom was not worth any notable contention. Then they looked upon the king's condescension in this particular, in a subject that all men knew had a wonderful influence upon his conscience, as a manifestation that he would not be constant in retaining, and denying any thing that should be impetuously and fiercely demanded; which as it exceedingly confirmed those wbo were engaged in that party, so it abated the courage of too many who had always opposed them and beartily detested their proceedings, and made them more remiss in their attendance at the House, and less solicitous for any thing that was done there: who by degrees first became a neutral party, believing they should be safe in angering no body; and wben tbey afterwards fouud no security in that indifferency, they adhered to those who they saw had the best success; and so went sharers with them, in their future attempts, according to their several tempers and inclinations."
Lord CLARENDON bas here tendered a strong reason why the unfortunate monarch was “ deserted at his utmost need" by many of his well-wishers, who were not afraid of avowing their persuasion, that he inherited too much of the wayward instability of his royal parent's disposition, which had very improperly been designated by himself and his courtiers, " tokens of complete king-craft."
+ " It was contrived to draw petitions accusatory from many parts of the kingdom against episcopal government, and the promoters of the petitions were entertained with great respects; whereas the many petitions of the opposite part, though subscribed with many thousand hands, were slighted and disregarded. Withal, the rabble of London, after their petitions cunniugly and upon other pretences procured, were stirred up to come to the Houses personally to crave justice both against the Earl of Strafford first, and then against the Archbishop of Canterbury, and lastly against the whole order of Bishops; which, coming at first unarmed, were checked by some well-willers and easily persuaded to gird on their rusty swords; and, so accoutred, came by thousands to the houses, filling all the outer rooms, offering foul abuses to the Bishops as they passed, crying out NO BISHOPS, NO Bishops! and at last, after divers days assembling, grown to that height of fury, that many of them came with resolution of some violent courses, in so much that many swords were drawn hereupon at Westminster, and the rout did not stick openly to profess that they would pull the Bishops in pieces. Hereupon the House of Lords was moved for some order for the preventing their mutinous and riotous meetings. Messages were sent down to the House of Commons to this purpose more than once. Nothing was effected; but for the present (for so much as all the danger was at the rising of the house) it was earnestly desired of the Lords that some care migbt be taken of our safety. The motion was received by some Lords with a smile. Some other Lords, as the Earl of Manchester, undertook
and by retrenching the perambulation of his forests and chases, to leave his game to the destruction of each boor or peasant. And by the terror of this army, they took upon them an authority of voting down the Church's power in making of canons, condemning all the members of the late Convocation, calumniating many of the Bishops and Clergy, in most odious manner, and vexing some of them to the grave. And they would have done the like to the Church itself, in pulling down the Bishops and Cathedral Churches, and taking to themselves all their lands and houses, if by the constancy and courage of the HOUSE OF Peers, they had not failed of their design.* But at the last, the
the protection of the Archbishop of York and his company, (whose shelter I went under,) to their lodgings; the rest, some of them by their long stay, others by secret and far-fetched passages escaped home.
“On January 30, in all the extremity of frost, at eight o'clock in the dark evening, are we voted to the Tower, only two of our number had the favour of the black rod by reason of their age, which, though desired by a noble
ord on my behalf, would not be yielded. The news of this our crime and imprisonment soon flew over the city, and was entertained by our wellwillers with ringing of bells and bonfires; who now gave us up (viot without great triumph) for lost men, railing on our perfidiousness, and adjudging us to what foul deaths they pleased. And what scurrile and malicious pamphlets were scattered abroad, throughout the kingdom, and in foreign parts, blazoning our infamy, and exaggerating our treasonable practices ! what insultations of our adversaries was here! Being caged sure enough in the Tower, the faction had now fair opportunities to work their own designs. They therefore, taking the advantage of our restraint, renew that bill of theirs, (which had been twice before rejected since the beginning of this session, for taking away the votes of Bishops in parliament, and in a very thin house casily passed it: which once condescended uuto, I know not by what strong importunity, his majesty's assent was drawn from him thereunto.” Bishop Hall's Hard Measure.
. This is another proof of the salutary influence of this necessary branch of the legislature, which, even in those days of ill-defined rights, operated as a check both on the regal and popular incroachments that templation. No one therefore will be surprised at the subsequent dissolution of the HOUSE OF Peers, which would have been a troublesome appendage to a REPUBLIC, in the fair management of which all men were supposed to have a share.
In Lord Clarendon's Lifc, it is said: “When Mr. Hyde sat in the chair, in the grand committee of the House for the extirpation of Episcopacy, all that party [the Republicans] made great court to him ; and the House keeping those disorderly hours, and seldom rising till after four of the clock in the afternoon, they frequently importuned him to dine with them, at Mr. Pym's lodging, which was at Sir Richard Maply's house, in a little court behind Westininster Hall; where be, and Mr. Hambden, Sir Arthur Haslerig, and two or three more, upon a stock kept a table, where they transacted much business; and invited thither those of whose conversion: they had any hope. One day after dinner, Nathaniel Fiennes, who that day likewise dined there, asked Mr. Hyde whether he would ride into the fields aud take a little air, it being a fine evening; which the other consenting to,' they sent for their horses, and, riding together in the fields between Westminster and Chelsea, Mr. Fiennes asked him, what it was that inclined • him to adhere so passiouately to the Church, which could not possibly be
supported.'-He answered, that he could have vo other obligation than • that of his own conscience and his reason, that could move with him ; for . he had no relation or dependence upon any churchmen, that could dispose
him to it; tbat he could not conceive how religion could be preserved without Bishops, nor how the Government of the State conld well subsist if
King prevailed so far with the Scots Commissioners, that they were willing to retire and withdraw their forces, upon his pro mise to confirm the Acts of the assembly at Glasgow, and reach out such a hand of favour unto all that nation, as might estate them in a happiness above their hopes. On this assurance they march homewards, and he followeth after : Where he consents to the abolishing of Bishops, and alienating all their lands by Act of Parliament; suppresseth, by like Acts, the Liturgy, and and the Book of Canons, and the five Articles of Perth ; rewards the chief actors in the late rebellion, with titles, offices, and honours; and parts with so much of his royal prerogative to content the subjects, that he left himself nothing of a King, but the empty name. And, to sum up the whole in brief, in one hour he unravelled all that excellent web, the weaving whereof had took up more than forty years ; and cost his father and him self so much pains and treasure.
“ His majesty was informed at his being in Scotland, that the Scots had neither taken up arms, nor invaded England, but that they were encouraged to it by some members of the Houses of Parliament, on a design to change the Government both of Church and State. In which he was confirmed by the Remonstrance of the state of the kingdom, presented to him by the Commons at his first coming back ; the forcible attempt for breaking into the Abbey of Westminster; the concourse of seditious people to the doors of the Parliament, crying out, that they would have no Bishops nor Popish Lords; and their tumultuating in a fearful manner, even at White-Hall Gates, where they cried out with far more horror to the hearers, that the King was not worthy to live ; that they would have no porter's lodge between him and them; and that the Prince would govern better. Hereupon certain members of both Houses ; that is to say, the Lord Kimbolton of the upper ; Hollis and Haslerig, Hampden, Pym, and Stroud, of the lower House, are impeached of treason, a serjeant sent to apprehend them, and command given for sealing up their trunks and closets. But on the contrary, the Commons did pretend and declared accordingly, that no member of theirs was to be im peached, arrested, or brought unto a legal trial, but by the order of that House ; and that the sealing up of their trunks or closets, was a breach of privilege.
the government of the Church were altered ; and asked him what Governiment they meant to introduce in its place.'-To wbich he answered, that (there would be time enough to think of that ;' but assured him, and wished him to remember what he said, tbat if the king resolved to defend (the Bishops, it would cost the kingdom much blood! and would be the
occasion of as sharp a war as had ever been in England: for that there was "a great number of good men, who resolved to lose their lives before they
would ever submit to that Government. Which was the first positive declaration he had ever heard from any particular man of that party ; very few of them having at that time that resolution, much less avowing it; and if they bad, the kingdom was in no degree at that time infected with that poison, how much soever it was spread afterwards."
In a subsequent passage he states the substance of a conversation between bim and tbe noted Harry Martin, the latter of whom "very frankly answered, that he thought the men KNAVES who governed the House of • Commons), and that when they had done as much as they intended to do, 6 they should be used as they had used others.'—The other pressed bim tben to say what he desired; to which, after a little pause, be very roundly answered, I do not think one man wise enough to govern us all : which was the first word he [Clarendon] had ever heard any man speak to that purpose; and would without doubt, if it had been then communicated or attempted, been the most abhorred by the whole nation of any design that could be mentioned ; and yet it appears it had even so early entered into the hearte
ered into the hearts of some desperate persons : that gentleman being at that time possessed of a very great fortune, and having great credit in his country."
“ Now comes Calvin's doctrine for restraining the power of Kings, to be put in practice. His Majesty's going to the House of Commons on the fourth of January, is voted for so high a breach of their rights and privileges, as was not to be salved by any retraction, or disclaimer, or any thing by him alleged in excuse thereof. Though his Majesty had sent them a most gracious message of the twentieth of January, in which he promised them to equal or exceed all acts of favour which any of his predecessors had extended to the people of England ;* yet nothing could secure them from their fears and jealousies, unless the trained-bands, and the royal navy, the Tower of London, and the rest of the Forts and Castles, were put into such hands as they might confide in. On this the King demurs a while ; but having shipped the Queen for Holland, with the Princess Mary, and got the Prince into his power, he denies it [the preceding proposal] utterly. And this denial is reputed a sufficient reason to take the Militia to themselves, and execute the powers thereof, without his consent. .“ During these counter-workings betwixt them and the King, the Lords and Commons plied him with continual messages for his return unto the Houses; and did as frequently endeavour to possess the people with their remonstrances and declarations, to his disadvantage. To each of which, his Majesty returned a significant answer, so handsomely apparelled, and comprea hending in them such a strength of reason, as gave great satis
# “ The king inadvertently resigned a large portion of that power which is essential to monarchy, but which he had unhappily abused in former instances, by consenting that this parliament should never be dissolved without the concurrence of its members; and thus rendered them little less than absolute. Having also, in other respects, complied with their wishes, he became indignant at their proceedings, and expressed his resolution to maintain the royal prerogative in opposition to their further demands, which he contended were exorbitant and unconstitutional. Exposed at the same time to popular insult in the metropolis, his Majesty retired to York, and prepared for war; while the Queen pledged the jewels of the crown in Holland, and with the money thence arising furnished him with arms and ammunitiou. Mean time the parliament, resolved to defend what they regarded as the rights of the subject, prepared for resistance. Thus was the country involved in civil discord, and witnessed through a series of years a lamentable effusion of human blood.” Jackson's Life of Goodwin.