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Right of Kings and the slaves of Passive Obedience.” The quibe bles which are necessary to the very foundation of Calvinism, contributed their aid to soften down the scriptural obligations of subjects to their rulers; and the most ignorant mechanic or husbandman in a Calvinistic congregation soon comprehended the doctrine of conditional obedience, the only trace of conDITIONALITY which is to be found throughout their fatal system. Most apposite therefore was this address of the venerable Hooker to the men of that school : “ For whereas the name of Divine AUTHORITY is used to countenance these things which are not the commandments of God, but your own erroneous collections, on Him ye must father whatsoever ye shall afterwards be led either to do in withstanding the adversaries of your cause, or to think in maintenance of your doings. And what this may be, God doth know. In such kinds of error, the mind once imagining itself to seek the execution of God's will, laboureth forth with to remove both things and persons, which any way hinder it from taking place; and in such cases, if any strange or new thing seem requisite to be done, a strange and new opinion, concerning the lawfulness thereof, is withal received and broached under countenance of Divine Authority.”

Grotius thus alludes to the death of Cameron in his Wishes for the Peace of the Church: “ I said, in my annotations at the close of the First Book On the Laws of War and Peace, that the Canons which prohibited the Clergy from the use of arms have been observed with greater strictness in the East than in the West. That remark was undoubtedly true, both as applied to those and to other Canons; because dispensations are unknown in the East, except in some few and trifling affairs. This busy intermeddling with other men's matters has already produced disastrous consequences to several persons; and if we enquire into the cause of those wars by which Europe has now for a long time been desolated, we shall find this flame to have been principally excited by those whose duty it was to be the heralds of peace. I can require no testimony of greater validity than that which is fresh in the recollection of Kings, Nobles, and People, when I affirm, that many of the civil wars in France have been excited by those who style themselves ministers of the gospel. No stronger proofs can be required than those furnished by several letters from the Duke of Bouillon and of Philip Mornay Lord du Plessis Marli, in which both of them complain of this circumstance: In addition to which, might be quoted the Commentaries on the last of those wars, which were composed by the Duke de Rohan. Yet [from such ministers of the gospel] I except CAMERON, who always entertained other sentiments, and on that account endured much bard usage. If in this respect there were others who resembled him, they also have my warm applauses. There were some pastors who kept themselves quiet, becau e they were in those situations in which it was impossible for ihem to make any attempts. The faults of the adverse party do not operate, in their behalf, as an excuse. We have in these days beheld a prodigious circumstance,—we have seen troops enlisted and regiments embodied, arms and warlike engines assembled together, under the name of the REFORMED CHURCHES. Had this power its origin in heaven or on earth ?"

Grotius then adverts to the doctrines contained in the Commentary of old David Paræus of Heidelberg on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. The transaction to which Grotius alludes was the following: “On the 14th of April, 1622, being Palm Sunday, it happened that a certain clergyman [Mr. Knight, of Pembroke College] preaching at Oxford upon these words, Let every soul be subject to the higher powers, among other positions advanced the following, that in case the King • should misbehave himself, inferior magistrates had a right to in• form him better, and to corrector amend him. For the explanation of this doctrine, he made use of the words of the Emperor Trajan, which he spoke to the captain of the guards, • Take this sword, and if í reign well, draw it for me; if • otherwise, draw it AGAINST me.' Hereupon this preacher was summoned by Dr. Pierce, one of the Canons of Christ Church and at that time Vice-Chancellor, to appear at his Court. He was then ordered to deliver a copy of his sermon, which he did. The King having heard of this matter, sent for him up to London, where he was strictly examined about his sermon, and asked how he came to preach it? He laid all the blame upon certain modern Divines of the foreign Churches, especially on Paræus, Professor of Divinity at Heidelberg, who, in his "Expositions on the Epistle to the Romans, had advanced the same Theses and quoted likewise that passage of Trajan. Upon this confession the king forgave the minister his fault, he being a young Divine who might easily be misled by such a famous writer. But his Majesty ordered the said book of Paræus to be publicly burnt, not only in both the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but also at London on a Sunday at St. Paul's Cross:" * This royal mandate was duly executed. To remove every seditious imputation from their body, the University of Oxford, in a full Convocation on the 25th of June, 1622, condemned four of the most obnoxious propositions of Paræus, and added to each of them a scholastic censure.

* A loyal old English writer, in reference to this public burping of the books of Paræus, calls it “ an accident much complained of by the Puritau party for a long time after, who looked upon it as the funeral pile of their hopes and projects ; till by degrees they got fresh courage, carrying ou their designs more secretly, hy consequence more dangerously, than before they did. "The terrible effects whereof we have seen aud felt in our late Civil Wars and present confusions."


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Grotius quotes this decree of the University which contained the positions condemned, and then subjoins : “ If these excepe tions of Paræus, that is, if so many subversions of St. Paul's rule be admitted, I declare that no empire will be in safety any longer than while those who hold such principles are destitute of power. But because it is not sufficient to know the evil unless at the same time its sources be made known, I will disclose those sources as far as I have been permitted to penetrate into their mysteries. These then are their sentiments: 'In ' every country there is a certain covenant between God, the • King, and the People; and it is formed on this condition, that, • if the King forsakes God, it is also lawful for the people to . forsake the King. Those who have forsaken God, they consider to be, First, · Those who acknowledge the supremacy of 'the Pope in the Church; for they have by that means fallen • from the power which they delivered to the beast.'-Secondly, • Those who attempt any reconciliation with that Church which • adheres to the Church of Rome; that is, with the synagogue of Satan,' as they are pleased to express themselves.—Lastly,

Those who retain any portion of their [ancienty rites, not

only such as are retained in England, but in other kingdoms • still further northward; for all those rites are Popish and • therefore idolatrous.

2. Another of their sentiments is this: 'In the Revelations *(xviii, 6,) it is written, Reward Babylon double according to

her works. But this Babylon is that Church which is con • nected with the Roman See. In this passage every believer • receives a Divine command, to demolish altars and the images • of saints, and to remove all this worship together with the

worshippers ; for unless this be done, Babylon can neither be • destroyed nor receive double according to her works. And * cursed be they who do this work of the Lord negligently! • (Jer. xlviii, 10.)

“ 3. Another of their opinions is that which, they say, is to be found in the prophecy of Daniel, (vii, 18, 22,) ' All • Kings and rulers whatsoever are bound to serve the saints of the Most High; that is, the saints of the Reformed [or Calvin. * istic] communion. This prediction is so evidently written, • that those persons must be blind who cannot see it.

“4. To these sentiments some of them add, ‘All things belong of right to the elect, all the rest are robbers.' Who these elect are, is a point which with them admits of no controversy, by placing themselves in the elect number; because Christ died . for them in particular; and of this circumstance they are well • assured, because they believe it, or because By Faith they apprehend this benefit !'. This is sad trifling; but it is such as conduces to serious evils.”

The reader who is conversant with the writings of the venerable Hooker, will perceive a great co-incidence between this statement by Grotius, and that given in the Preface to the “ Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity.” It must also again be observed, that the term Reformed is assumed by the Calvinists on the Continent, in the same manner as the epithet EVANGELICAL is claimed by their brethren in England.

Rivet, Professor of Divinity at Leyden, wrote an answer to these statements; and Grotius thought it necessary, for the defence of truth, to expose the quibbling of his adversary, which he did in his Discussion of Rivel's Apology, from which the following is a very instructive extract containing another allusion to the case of Cameron: “ It is the duty of the man who is studious of the peace of Christians, to destroy those dogmas which disturb the peace of society. A man must become a good citizen, before he is a good Christian. Subversive of civil peace is the dogma of those who call themselves the REFORMED, which declares it to be lawful for subjects to rise in arms • against their Kings or rulers ;' which that most noble man, Philip Mornai Lord du Plessis Marli, inserted in his last will as a sentiment agreeable to piety. From this source arose the insurrection at Amboise, when the Reformed Renaudiere convened some persons like himself to a private conclave, and delivered to them the power over the States of the realm. From the same source arose Beza's seditious and warlike orations. * This also

* The phrase in the text is, Hinc Bezæ conciones pro classico ; which was an allusion well understood at that period. It will be illustrated by the subjoined quotation from the History of Thuanus, (lib. 53,) who, in giving an account of the letter of the Protestant Charpentier concerning the causes which conduced to the bloody French tragedy of St. Bartholomew's Day, says: “Charpentier declares, that there were two parties amongst the Protestants. ione consisting of peaceable persons, who acted with sincerity and from a

religious principle, and who followed the maxims of the religiou which they • professed,--the other consisting of persons who acted from a spirit of faction, and who were seditious men and enemies to the public peace and tranquillity;

that each of those parties had at its head particular pastors ; and that the • moderate leaders were obnoxious to the more violent, and especially to Beza,' whom he calls the trumpet of Seba, and against whom he utters in his book the most bitter exclamations.-Charpentier not only excuses the massacre, but likewise proves, at great length and in a very artful manner, that it was

just and necessary, in order to subdue an impious faction, whose sole design was to subvert the royal authority, to withdraw the chief cities of the realm < from the allegiance which was due to their sovereign, and to disturb the pub

lic tranquillity ;-a faction that seemed to have been formed for the ruin of • the Protestant religion itself, by some seditious individuals who were the ene(mies of their country.'"

SEBA, in the phrase The trumpet of Seba, is an anagram upon the name of Beza, and refers to the following passage of Scripture: “And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bilcri, a Benjamite : And he bleu a trumpet, and said, We bave no part in David,

neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse. Every man to his tepts, • Israel !'-So every man of Israel went up from after David, and followed

gave origin to the impudence of the Convention of Rochelle, which declared that all the Papists in the Kingdom, and even those among the Reformed who adhered to the authority of the King, were to be removed from all public honours and offices ; it likewise appointed to the government of the provinces throughout the kingdom whatever persons it thought proper. Theophi. lus Milletiere,* a nobleman who is exceedingly well-inclined

Sheba,” &c. (2 Sam. xx, i.) This allusion to the political meddling of the early divines of the Genevan School, but particularly to those of them who adopted the platform as well as the doctrine of Calvin, was peculiarly appropriate, and became a standing proverb in all countries in wbich such injudicious pastors endeavoured to excite seditious movements, for the purpose of introducing what they called The LORD'S DISCIPLINE. With what degree of justice this charge was preferred against them, the reader may easily learn, by the various apologetical or palliative writings published by the offending parties themselves, were there no other equally valid documents in existence.

• The memory of Theophile Brachet Sieur de la Milletiere has been greatly traduced by the French Calvinists. He was the intimate friend of Cameron, after whose death be published some of the enlarged religious views of the man whom he admired. Tu the book wbich Du Moulin wrote against Amyraut, he speaks thus of Milletiere : “ After Cameron's removal from things terrestrial, an affair happened which brought a grievous staiu upon that great man's reputation. For a short time after his decease, Milletiere, bis Acbates and sole companion, who always paid the most devoted attention to what be spoke, produced those monsters which he had conceived under Cameron's tuition. For he published a book against Du Moulin, who expected nothing of that description, in which he defends merits and justification by works, and speaks in such a manner about the Sacrament of the Eucharist as betokens a person far too much inclined towards transubstantiation. He also makes honourable mention of the Church of Rome, and declares she bas preserved all the capital articles of the christian faith pure and untainted, although in some things she may have wandered from the right path. All these novelties he professes to have received from that incomparable man, Mr. Cameron ;" &c.

But it must be recollected, that these are the exaggerated statements of a violent adversary, who hated bim for his approaches towards Arminianisnı, which had formerly been an object of his greatest aversiou. In quality of elder of the Reformed Church of Paris, Milletiere was deputed as the representative of that church at the seditious assembly at Rochelle, to which he was appointed secretary, and wrote an answer to Tilenus, who had reprehended the conduct of the Calvinists on that occasion. He was afterwards seized at the Court of France as one of the most outrageous partizans of the Duke de Roban; after having been put to the rack and suffered a long imprisonment, he was at length liberated. Like bis friend Cameron, he became more moderate iu bis politics and more charitable in his religious principles; and, placing Cameronism as the basis of bis scheme, he tried by it to effect a uuion between the Protestants and the Papists. This attempt only tended to increase the bostility of the French Calvinists against him. Several of his writings were coudemned by the National Synod of Alencon in 1637 ; and “ a letter was addressed to him by this assembly, informing bim, that, unless he gave a satisfactory declaration of his penitence to the Consistory of Paris within six months, he would not he accounted a member of the Reformed Church. After several warnings, which proved of po service to him, the Synods declared him to be no longer a member of the churches, and not one of them would admit bim into its communion : So tbat he became a Catholic of necessity, that he might be of some religion." He was rejected from the bosom of the Reformed Church in 1645, during the session of the National Synod of Charenton. It is related of him, that, when he began to attend the service of the Romish Church, he heard a sermon preached by a Popish Bishop, who, in

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