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CHAMBERS'S

ENCYCLOPAEDIA

CHAMBERS'S

ENCYCLOPEDIA

A DICTIONARY

UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOP

ILLUSTRATED

WITH MArS AND NUMEROUS WOOD ENGRAVINGS
REVISED EDITION

VOL. V

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LONDON
W. AND S. CHAMBERS 47 PATERNOSTER ROW

AND HIGH STREET EDINBURGH
187 6

All Rights arc reserved

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PAOI

ENGLAND And WALES, 66

SCOTLAND, 70

GE^ECIA ANTIQUA,' 78

INDIA, Or HINDUSTAN, ..... 644

IRELAND, ....... 623

ITALY, 652

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GOOD, John Mason, a physician and author, was horn at Epping in Essex, 1764, and died in London in 1827. He commenced practice as a Burgeon in Sudbury in 1784, but meeting with little success, h^ removed to London in 1793, principally with the view of obtaining literary employment.

In addition to The Book of Nature, the work by which he is now chiefly known, and which only appeared shortly before his death, he published various poems, translations, and professional treatises. Of his original poems we need say nothing. Amongst his translations we may notice his Song of Songs, or Sacred Idylls, translated from the Hebrew, 1803; his translation of Lucretius, in Terse, in 1805; of the Book of Job, in 1812; of the book of Proverbs, in 1821; and of the Book of Psalms, which was just completed at the time of his death. His chief professional work, his Study of Medicine, in four volumes, was published in 1822. It is a learned and amusing work, but by no means a trustworthy guide to the medical student. He likewise published, in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory and Bosworth, the Pantologia, or Encyclopedia, comprising a General Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature, in twelve volumes, which completed in 1813, and contributed largely His friend, Dr Olinthus

to various periodicals.

published a

Memoir of his Life in

GOOD BEHAVIOUR, a phrase rather popular than legal. It is used chiefly as synonymous with keeping the peace. Thus, if one person assaults another, or threatens or provokes him to a breach of the peace, the offence is punishable summarily by justices of the peace, who, besides inflicting a fine, may, and often do bind over the offending party to keep the peace, and bo of good behaviour for a period of six or twelve months. The mode of doing this is by requiring the offending party to enter into his recognizances with or without sureties, which is, in fact, the giving a bond for a specified •um to the crown, and if it is broken, that is, if

the recognizance is forfeited, then the party may be again punished.

GOOD-CONDUCT PAY is an addition made in the British army to the daily pay of corporals and private soldiers, in consideration of long service unaccompanied by bad behaviour. The amount awarded at one tune is Id. a day, with one white chevron on the arm as a badge of distinction. Successive awards of good-conduct pay may raise the total grant to 6rf. a day, with a corresponding number of stripes on the arm. It reckons, in part, towards increase of pension when the soldier quits the service.

In each regiment there is kept a 'Regimental Defaulters' Book,' in which the commanding officer is bound to enter the name of every soldier in the corps who shall have been convicted by courtmartial of any offence, or who, in consequence of misconduct, shall be subjected to forfeiture of pay, either with or without imprisonment, or to any other punishment beyond seven days' confinement to barracks. No first or subsequent Id. of goodconduct pay can be awarded to a soldier, unless two continuous years have elapsed without his name being thus recorded; and if he have the misfortune to come within the provisions of this black book while actually in receipt of good-conduct pay, he loses for each offence Id. per diem, which can only be restored after one uninterrupted year of good service, during which his name has not been recorded in the defaulters' book. The loss of the Id. is of course accompanied by the loss of the corresponding distinguishing mark or stripe.

The first Id. is obtainable after two years' service, without the name once appearing in the defaulters' book; the second, after 6 years; the third, after 12 years; the fourth, after 18 years; the fifth, after 23 years; and the sixth, after 28 years; the service being only reckoned in any case from the age of 18, and two years of uninterrupted good conduct immediately before the time at which the award is granted being requisite in every instance. As an

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