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Semimonthly issues: United States and possessions. $110 postpaid: foreign coun-
tries. $125 postpaid.
Cumulated index volumes: United States and possessions. $75 postpaid; foreign
countries, $90 postpaid.


Scientific and technical reports produced by NASA and its contractors and grantees, or in conjunction with other Government agencies, and other selected documents released by NASA are identified by an asterisk (*) following the accession numbers (e.g.. N7210748*). Prior to their announcement in STAR, these NASA publications are assigned a specific NASA report number, which is shown on the last line of the STAR citation. The nature of NASA publications is specified by the report number series, identified by a prefix to the report number: TR-R. TN-D. TM-X. TT-F. CR. or SP. These series refer respectively to NASA Technical Reports, which contain significant and complete contributions to scientific and technical knowledge; Technical Notes, reports of similar quality but lesser scope: Technical Memorandums, reports containing preliminary data or of specialized utility: Technical Translations, information published in a foreign language and considered to merit NASA distribution in English: Contractor Reports. information generated under NASA-sponsored contracts, grants, or interagency agreements; and Special Publications, which include conference proceedings. monographs, data compilations, sourcebooks, special bibliographies, and other publications derived from or of value to NASA activities. Reports in these series that are printed by NASA are often referred to as "low'numbered" or "low series" publications, because the report number is always below 50.000 (8.000 for Technical Translations). Some TM-X and CR reports are numbered above 50.000, are referred to as "high-numbered" or "high series" publications, and are generally available only in microfiche or facsimile reproductions.


NASA distributes its publications to qualified recipients who have registered as described in the next paragraph. (Public availability of NASA reports and other publications announced in STAR is discussed separately in this Introduction.) Automatic distribution of low series NASA reports can be made in either paper (printed) copy or microfiche. High series NASA reports are given automatic distribution only as microfiche. The automatic distribution of a NASA report, in paper copy and/or microfiche, is made under the same subject category in which it is announced in STAR. A printed low series report usually is disseminated four to six weeks prior to its announcement in STAR. Microfiche of both low and high series reports are disseminated concurrently with STAR announcement. Automatic distribution of NASA documents is supplemented by a secondary request service, usually for microfiche copy only. which NASA may provide to qualified registrants.


A variety of services, in addition to the distribution of NASA scientific and technical reports and of STAR and its cumulative indexes, is available to organizations of the following type that have registered with NASA to receive specific services or products:

1. NASA offices, research centers. contractors, subcontractors, grantees, and con

sultants: 2. Other U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; 3. Libraries in the United States that have arrangements with NASA to maintain

(1) A microfiche is a transparent sheet of film, 105 by 148 mm in size, containing
as many as 60 to 98 pages of information reduced to micro images (not to excood
24:1 roduction)

collections of NASA documents for public reference; 4. Other organizations in the United States having a need for NASA documents in

work related to aeronautics and space research; 5. Organizations abroad that have established reciprocal document exchange arrange

monts with NASA. Only the contral service points or central points of document acquisition and control within qualified organizations are eligible to register for NASA products and services. Domestic organizations that may be eligible to receive various classes of NASA publications and services should address their requests for registration or for further information to:

NASA Scientific and Technical Information Facility

Attn.: Registration Activity
P. O. Box 33

College Park, MD 20740
Organizations abroad should direct requests to the same address, but to the attention of:
Foreign Exchange and Acquisitions Branch.


The source of documents announced in STAR varies, depending upon the organization
which has issued a document and the form in which the document can be provided.
Those documents that can be obtained on microfiche are indicated in STAR by the #
symbol following the NASA accession number. All documents for which microfiche can
be obtained are also available as facsimile.
Documents that cannot be microfiched but for which one-to-one facsimile can be provided
are indicated by a plus (+) instead of the # sign. Documents for which neither the + nor #
symbol is shown, and for which no availability other than the issuing activity is given, may
present unusual problems of reproducibility. The originator of such a document should be
consulted as to its availability.
A source from which a document announced in STAR is available to the public is ordinarily
given on the last line of the citation. The NASA accession number is sufficient when order-
ing NASA and NASA-sponsored documents (indicated by an asterisk) from the
National Technical Information Service. When ordering non-NASA documents (no
asterisk) from the issuing agency or other sources, particularly NTIS, it is essential that
additional bibliographic information, including the report number, be given.
The following are the most commonly indicated sources: (Full addresses of these organiza-
tions are listed at the end of this introduction.)
Avail: NTIS. Sold by the National Technical Information Service at a standard price

of $3.00 for hard copy (printed, facsimile, or reproduced from microfiche) of 300
pages or less. Documents in the 301- to 600-page range are sold for $6.00 in
hard copy, and those in the 601- to 900-page range are sold at $9.00. Docu-
ments exceeding 900 pages are priced by NTIS on an individual basis. Excep-
tional prices are given in the citations. These prices apply retroactively to all
documents in the NTIS collection, but in addition, documents of 300 pages or
less that are over two years old (from date of announcement in Government
Reports Announcements, or STAR for those items announced only in STAR)
will have a surcharge of $3.00 added for a total price of $6.00. No additional
surcharge will be added for documents over 300 pages.
Microfiche is available from NTIS at a standard price of 95 cents (regardless of
age) for those documents identified by the # sign following the accession number

(e.g., N72-10411#) and having an NTIS availability shown in the citation.
Standing orders for microfiche of (1) the full collection of NTIS-available docu-
ments announced in STAR with the # symbol. (2) NASA reports only (identified
by an asterisk (*)). (3) NASA-accessioned non-NASA reports only (for those
who wish to maintain an integrated microfiche file of aerospace documents by
the "N" accession number), or (4) any of these classes within one or more
STAR categories, also may be placed with NTIS at greatly reduced prices per
title (e.g., 35 cents) over individual requests. Inquiries concerning NTIS Selective
Dissemination of Microfiche (SDM) should be addressed to the Subscription
Unit, National Technical Information Service.

Prices for NTIS products and services are subject to change without notice.
Avail: SOD (or GPO). Sold by the Superintendent of Documents. U.S. Government

Printing Office, in hard copy. The price and order number are given following the
availability line. (An order received by NTIS for one of these documents will
be filled at the SOD price if hard copy is requested. NTIS will also fill micro-
fiche requests, at the standard 95 cent price, for those documents identified

by a # symbol.)
Avail: NASA Scientific and Technical Information Office. Documents with this avail-

ability are usually news releases or informational leaflets available without charge

in paper copy.
Avail: AEC Depository Libraries. Organizations in U.S. cities and abroad that maintain

collections of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission reports, usually in microfiche form,
are listed in Nuclear Science Abstracts. Services available from the USAEC and its
depositories are described in a booklet, Science Information Available from the
Atomic Energy Commission (TID-4550), which may be obtained without charge

from the USAEC Division of Technical Information.
Avail: Univ. Microfilms. Documents so indicated are dissertations selected from Dis-

sertation Abstracts and are sold by University Microfilms as xerographic
copy (HC) at $10.00 each and microfilm at $4.00 each. regardless of the
length of the manuscript. Handling and shipping charges are additional. All re-
quests should cite the author and the Order Number as they appear in the

Avail: USGS. Originals of many reports from the U.S. Geological Survey, which

may contain color illustrations, or otherwise may not have the quality of illustra-
tions preserved in the microfiche or facsimile reproduction, may be examined
by the public at the libraries of the USGS field offices whose addresses are
listed in this Introduction. The libraries may be queried concerning the timely
availability of specific documents and the possible utilization of local copying

services (e.g., color reproduction).
Avail: HMSO. Publications of Her Majesty's Stationery Office are sold in the U.S.

by Pendragon House, Inc. (PHI), Redwood City, California. The U.S. price (including
a service and mailing charge) is given, or a conversion table may be obtained

from PHI.
Avail: National Lending Library. Boston Spa. England. Sold by this organization at

the price shown. (If none is given, an inquiry should be addressed to NLL.)
Avail: ZLDI. Sold by the Zentralstelle für Luftfahrtdokumentation und Informa-

tion, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, at the price shown in deutsch-

marks (DM).
Avail: Issuing Activity, or Corporate Author, or no indication of availability: Inquiries
as to the availability of these documents should be addressed to the organiza-

tion shown in the citation as the corporate author of the document.
Avail: U.S. Patent Office. Sold by Commissioner of Patents, U.S. Patent Office, at

the standard price of 50 cents each, postage free. (See discussion of patents

and patent applications below.)
Other availabilities: If the publication is available from a source other than the above,

the publisher and his address will be displayed entirely on the availability line or
in combination with the corporate author line.


Facsimile copy or microfiche of NASA and NASA-sponsored documents identified by
both the symbols # and * and those AGARD reports that are on microfiche may be
purchased from:

ESRO/ELDO Space Documentation Service
European Space Research Organization
114, av. de Neuilly
92-Neuilly-sur-Seine, France


Patents and patent applications owned by NASA are announced in STAR under appro-
priate subject categories and are referenced in the STAR indexes. In the Report/Ac-
cession Number Index, patents are indexed by the NASA Case Number (which appears
in lieu of the report number in other indexes). the U.S. Patent Number, the U.S. Patent
Application Serial Number, and the U.S. Patent Class. Patent applications for which
patents have not yet been issued are indexed by the NASA Case Number and the
U.S. Patent Application Serial Number.
NASA patent application specifications are sold by the National Technical Information
Service at the established unit price of $3.00 for hard copy and 95 cents for microfiche.
The NASA accession number should be used for ordering from NTIS. Printed copies
of patents (which are not microfiched). are available for purchase at 50 cents per copy

Commissioner of Patents
U.S. Patent Office

Washington, DC 20231
When ordering patents, the U.S. Patent Number should be used, and payment must be
remitted in advance, preferably by money order or check payable to the Commissioner
of Patents. Prepaid purchase coupons for ordering are also available from the Patent
The patents and patent applications announced in STAR are owned by NASA and are
available for royalty-free licensing. Requests for licensing terms and further information should
be addressed to:

Assistant General Counsel for Patent Matters / Code GP-1
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Washington, DC 20546


In the citation of each NASA-supported document and of some non-NASA documents is a
code (e.g., CSCL 25A) that indicates the subject category assigned to it from the COSATI
Subject Category List (first ed. December 1964) published by the Committee on Scientific and Technical Information of the Federal Council for Science and Technology.


The Preliminary Edition of the NASA Thesaurus (December 1967) (NASA SP-7030) is used as the authority for the indexing vocabulary that appears in the subject index. The NASA Thesaurus should be consulted in examining the current indexing vocabulary, including associated cross-reference structure. Only the subject terms that have been selected to describe the documents abstracted in this issue appear in the subject index. Copies of the NASA Thesaurus may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service or the U.S. Government Printing Office at $8.50 for the three-volume set.

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