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he that will without any prejudice and partiality study Paul where he opposeth faith and works, as to our justification, shall find by his almost constant naming “the works of the law,” or by the context and analysis, that indeed his chief meaning is to prove, that we are justified by the Christian religion, and must be saved by it, and not by the Jewish which the adversaries of Christianity then pleaded for, and trusted to.

Direct. 12. 'Set not the helps of faith as if they were against faith ; but understand their several places and offices, and use them accordingly.'

Do not like those ignorant self-conceited heretics, who cry out, “It is by believing, and not by repenting, or reading, or hearing sermons, or by praying, or by forbearing sin, or by doing good, that we are justified; and therefore it is by faith only that we are saved ; the same which is sufficient for our justification, being sufficient for our salvation; seeing the justified cannot be condemned; and justification and salvation are both equally ascribed to faith without the works of the law, by the apostle.' For we are justified only by such a faith, as is caused by God's word, and maintained and actuated by hearing, reading, meditation, prayer and sacraments; and as is accompanied by repentance, and worketh by love, and is indeed the beholding of those invisible and glorious motives, which may incite our love, and set us on good works, and obedience to our Redeemer. And he that by negligence omitteth, or by error excludeth any one of these in the life of faith, will find that he hath erred against his own interest, peace and comfort, if not against his own salvation. And that he might as wisely have disputed that it is his eyes only that must see the way, and therefore he may travel without his legs.

Direct. 13. “Take heed lest a misconceit of the certainty of some common philosophical opinions, should make you stagger in those articles of faith which seem to contradict them.'

Not indeed that any truths can be contrary one to another : for that which is true in philosophy, is contrary to no one truth in theology: but philosophers have deceived themselves and the world, with a multitude of uncertainties and falsities; and by straining them to subtle niceties, and locking them up in uncouth terms, have kept the common people from trying them, and understanding them; and thereby have made it their own prerogative explicitly to err, and the people's duty not to contradict them; but to admire that error as profound parts of learning, which they cannot understand. And then their conclusions often go for principles which must not be gainsaid, when they are perhaps either false, or nonsense. And when they meet with any thing in Scripture, which crosseth their opinions, the reputation of human folly maketh them despise the wisdom of God. I have given you elsewhere some instances about the immortality of the soul : they know not what generation is; they do not know it: nor what are the true principles and elements of mixed bodies; nor what is the true difference between immaterial and material substances; with an hundred such like : and yet some expect, that we should sacrifice the most certain useful truths, to their false or uncertain useless suppositions, which is the true reason why Paul saith, " Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy, and vain deceit (not true philosophy, which is the true knowledge of the works of God, but the vain models which every sect of them cried up) after the tradition of men, (that is, the opinions of the masters of their sects) af. ter the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ: for in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily; and ye are complete in him ;” Col. ii. 8-10. See Acts xvii. 18. It is Christ who is the kernel and summary of the Christian philosophy; who is therefore called “ The wisdom of God," (1 Cor. i. 24, 30.) both because he is the heavenly Teacher of true wisdom, and because that true wisdom consisteth in knowing him. And indeed even in those times, the several sects of philosophers accounted much of each other's principles to be erroneous; and the philosophers of these times, begin to vilify them all ; and withal to confess that they have yet little of certainty to substitute in the room of the demolished idols; but they are about their experiments, to try if any thing in time may be found out.

Direct. 14. ' Especially take heed lest you be cheated into infidelity, by the Dominicans' metaphysical doctrine, of the necessity of God's physical predetermining promotion as the first total cause, to the being of every action natural and free, not only in genere actionis,' but also as

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respectively and comparatively exercised on this object rather than on that.'

I add this only for the learned, who are as much in danger of infidelity as others; and will use it to the greater injury of the truth. I will meddle now with no other reasons of my advice, but what the subject in hand requireth. If God can, and do thus premove and predetermine the mind, will and tongue of every liar in the world, to every lie (or material falsehood) which ever they did conceive or speak, there would be no certainty of the Gospel, nor of any divine revelation at all: seeing all such certainty is resolved into God's veracity: that God cannot lie. And God speaketh not to us, by any but a created voice: and if he can thus predetermine others to those words which are a lie, rather than to the contrary which are true, there would be no certainty, but he may do so by prophets and apostles: and let them tell you what they will of the greater certainty of inspirations and miracles, than of predeterminations, it will be found upon trial, that no man can prove, or make it so much as probable, that any inspiration hath more of a divine causation, than such a premoving predetermination as aforesaid doth amount to; much less so much more, as will prove that one is more certain than the other.

This doctrine therefore which undeniably (whatever may be wrangled) taketh down Christianity, and all belief of God, or man, is not to be believed merely upon such a philosophical conceit, that every action is a being, and therefore must in all its circumstances be caused by God. As if God were not able to make a faculty, which can determine its own comparative act to this rather than to that, by his sustentation, and universal precausation and concourse, without the said predetermining “premotion: when as an action as such is but a 'modus entis ;' and the comparative exercise of it, on this rather than on that, is but a 'modus vel circumstantia modi.' And they leave no work, for gracious determination, because that natural determination doth all the same thing (equally to duty and sin) without it.

Direct. 15. Consider well how much all human converse is maintained by the necessary belief of one another, and what the world would be without it; and how much you expect yourselves to be believed : and then think how much more belief is due to God.'

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Though sin hath made the world so bad, that we may say, that all men are liars, that is, deceitful vanity, and little to be trusted; yet the honesty of those that are more virtuous, doth help so far to keep up the honour of veracity, and the shamefulness of lying, that throughout the world, a lie is in disgrace, and truth in speech and dealing is well spoken of. And the remnants of natural honesty in the worst, do so far second the true honesty of the best, that no man is so well spoken of commonly in the world, as a man of truth and trustiness, whose word is his law and master, and never speaketh deceitfully to any : nor is any man so commonly ill spoken of as a knave, as he that will lie, and is not to be trusted : insomuch, that even those debauched ruffians, who live as if they said in their hearts, 'There is no God,' will yet venture their lives in revenge against him that shall give them the lie. Perhaps you will say, that this is not from any virtue, or natural law, or honesty, but from common interest, there being nothing more the interest of mankind, than that men be trusty to each other. To which /

answer, that you oppose things which are conjunct: it is both: for all God's natural laws are for the interest of mankind, and that which is truly most for our good, is made most our duty; and that which is most our duty, is most for our good. And that which is so much for the interest of mankind, must needs be good: if it were not for credibility and trustiness in men, there were no living in families; but masters and servants, parents and children, husbands and wives, would live together as enemies : and neighbours would be as so many thieves to one another : there could be no society or commonwealth, when prince and people could put no trust in one another: nay, thieves themselves, that are not to be trusted by any others, do yet strengthen themselves by confederacies, and oaths of secrecy, and gather into troops and armies, and there put trust in one another. And can we think that God is not much more to be trusted, and is not a greater hater of a lie? And is not the fountain of all fidelity? And hath not a greater care of the interest of his creatures ? Surely he that thinketh that God is a liar, and not to be trusted, will think no better of any mortal man or angel, (and therefore trusteth no one, and is very censorious) and would be thought no better of

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himself, and therefore would have none believe or trust him : for who would be better than his God?

Direct. 16. Consider also that veracity in God is his nature or essence; and cannot be denied without denying him to be God.'

For it is nothing but his three essentialities, or principles, power, wisdom and goodness, as they are expressed in his word or revelations, as congruous to his mind, and to the matter expressed. He that neither wanteth knowledge (to know what to say and do) nor goodness (to love truth, and hate all evil) nor power to do what he please, and to make good his word, cannot possibly lie; because every lie is for want of one, or more of these; Heb. vi. 18. Titus i. 2. And there as it is said, that he cannot lie, and that it is impossible ; so it is called, a denying of himself, if he could be unfaithful. “If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful, and cannot deny himself;" 2 Tim. ii. 13.

Direct. 17. Exercise faith much in those proper works, in which self and sense are most denied and overcome.'

Bodily motions and labours which we are not used to, are done both unskilfully, and with pain. If faith be not much exercised in its warfare, and victorious acts, you will neither know its strength, nor find it to be strong, when you come to use it. It is not the easy and common acts of faith, which will serve turn, to try and strengthen it. As the life of sense is the adversary which faith must conquer ; so use it much in such conflicts and conquests, if you would find it strong and useful : use it in such acts of mortification and self-denial, às will plainly shew, that it over-ruleth sense: use it in patience and rejoicing in such sufferings, and in contentment in so low and cross a state, where you are sure that sight and sense do not contribute to your peace and joy : use it not only in giving some little of your superfluities, but in giving your whole two mites, even all your substance, and selling all and giving to the poor, when indeed God maketh it your duty : at least in forsaking all for his sake in a day of trial. Faith never doth work so like itself, so clearly, so powerfully, and so comfortably, as in these self-denying and overcoming acts, when it doth not work alone, without the help of sense to comfort us; but also against sense, which would discourage

Luke xviii. 22, 23. xiv. 26. 33. 2 Cor, v. 7.

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