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may reasonably be expected to affect $ 1201.54 as the Secretary may require, emissions. These test data shall be sup- before beginning to accumulate hours on plied to the Secretary immediately after the engine. Failure to comply with this the tests, along with a complete record requirement will invalidate all test data of all pertinent maintenance, including later submitted for this engine. an engineering report of any malfunction (f) Once a manufacturer begins to diagnosis and the corrective action taken. operate an emission data or durability In addition, all test data and mainte data engine, as indicated by compliance nance reports shall be compiled and pro with paragraph (e) of this section, he vided to the Secretary in accordance shall continue to run the engine to 125 with $ 1201.53.
hours or 1,500 hours, respectively, and (c) If the Secretary determines that the data from the engine will be used in maintenance or repairs have resulted in the calculations under $ 1201.113. Discona substantial change to the engine-sys tinuation of an engine shall be allowed tem combination, the engine shall not be only with the prior written consent of used as a durability data engine.
the Secretary. $ 1201.112 Service accumulation and $1201.113 Compliance with emission emission measurements.
standards. The engine dynamometer service ac (a) The exhaust emission standards in cumulation schedule will consist of sev the regulations in this part apply to the eral operating conditions which give the average lifetime emissions of engines in same percentage of time at various man public use. Prior to certification, lifetime ifold vacuums and the modes as specified emissions can be obtained by projection in the emission test cycle. The average of test data to lifetime normal service. speed shall be between 1,650 and 1,700 Normal service in an urban area or its r.p.m. with some operation at 3,200 equivalent for 100,000 miles is taken as
equivalent for 100.000 miles r.p.m. or governed speed, whichever is the basis for “lifetime emissions." Operlower. Maximum cycle time shall be 15 ation on an engine dynamometer in the minutes. A cycle approved in advance by prescribed manner for 3,000 hours is the Secretary shall be used.
taken to be equivalent to such service. (a) Emission data engines: Each (b) It is expected that emission conemission data engine shall be operated trol efficiency will change with the acfor 125 hours with all emission contol
cumulation of hours on the engine. It is
assumed that the emission level of an systems installed and operating. Emis
engine which has accumlated 1,500 hours sion tests shall be conducted at zero and
of dynamometer operation is the aver125 hours
age emission level of that engine over its (b) Durability data engines: Each
lifetime. durability data engine shall be operated,
(c) The procedure for determining with all emission control systems in compliance of a new engine with exhaust stalled and operating, for 1,500 hours. emission standards is as follows: Emission measurements, as prescribed, (1) Separate emission deterioration shall be made at zero hours and at each
factors shall be determined from the 125-hour interval.
emission results of the durability data
engines for each engine-system combina(c) All tests required by this subpart
tion. Separate factors shall be established to be conducted after 125 hours of oper
for HC and CO for each combination. ation or at any multiple of 125 hours
(i) The applicable results to be used may be conducted at any accumulated
in determining the deterioration factors number of hours within 8 hours of 125 for each combination shall be: hours or the appropriate multiple of 125 (a) All emission data from the tests hours, respectively.
required under $ 1201.112(b), except the (d) The results of each emission test zero-hour tests. This shall include the shall be supplied to the Secretary imme official test results, as determined in diately after the test. In addition, all
§ 1201.54, for all tests conducted on all test data shall be compiled and provided
durability engines of the combination to the Secretary in accordance with
selected under $ 1201.110(c) (including
all engines elected to be operated by the $ 1201.53.
manufacturer under $ 1201.110(c)(3)). (e) Whenever the manufacturer pro (b) All emission data from the tests poses to operate and test an engine which
conducted before and after the mainmay be used for emission or durability tenance provided in $ 1201.111(a) (1) (i). data, he shall provide the zero-hour test (ii) All applicable results shall be data to the Secretary and make the plotted as a function of the hours on the engine available for such testing under system, rounded to the nearest hour, and
exhaust emissions interpolated to 1,500 hours factor=
exhaust emissions interpolated to 125 hours the best fit straight lines, fitted by the tinuous examination of the exhaust gases. method of least squares, shall be drawn The test is applicable equally to conthrough these data points. The inter trolled engines equipped with means for polated 125- and 1,500-hour points on preventing, controlling, or eliminatin this line must be within the standard smoke emissions and to uncontrolled provided in $ 1201.31 or the data shall not engines be used in calculation of a deterioration (c) The test is designed to determine factor.
the opacity of smoke in exhaust emis(iii) An exhaust emission deteriora sions during those engine operating contion factor shall be calculated for each ditions which tend to promote smoke combination as follows:
from diesel-powered vehicles. (2) The exhaust emission test results (d) The test procedure begins with a for each emission data engine shall be warm engine which is then run through multiplied by the appropriate deteriora preloading and preconditioning operation factor: Provided, That if a deteri tions. After an idling period, the engine is oration factor as computed in subpara operated through acceleration and luggraph (1) of this paragraph is less than ging modes during which smoke emission one, that deterioration factor shall be one measurements are made to compare with for the purposes of this subparagraph. the standards. The engine is then re
(3) The emissions to compare with the turned to the idle condition and the acstandard shall be the adjusted emissions celeration and lugging modes are reof subparagraph (2) of this paragraph peated. Three sequences of acceleration for each emission data engine.
and lugging constitute the full set of (4) Every test engine of an engine operating conditions for smoke emission family must comply with all applicable measurement. standards, as determined in subpara
$ 1201.121 Diesel fuel specifications. graph (3) of this paragraph, before any
(a) The diesel fuels employed shall be engine in that family will be certified.
clean and bright, with pour and cloud Subpart J-Test Procedures for En points adequate for operability. T
gine Exhaust Emissions (Heavy Duty may contain nonmetallic additives as Diesel Engines)
follows: cetane improver, metal deacti
vator, antioxidant, dehazer, antirust, $ 1201.120 Introduction.
pour depressant, dye, and dispersant. (a) The procedures described in this (b) Fuel meeting the following specifisubpart will be the test program to deter cations, or substantially equivalent specimine the conformity of heavy duty diesel fications approved by the Secretary, shall engines with the applicable standards set be used in exhaust emission testing. The forth in this part:
grade of fuel recommended by the engine (b) The test consists of a prescribed manufacturer, commercially designated sequence of engine operating conditions as “Type 1-D" or "Type 2-D", shall be on an engine dynamometer with con- used.
(c) Fuel meeting the following specifications, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Secretary, shall be used in service accumulation. The grade of fuel recommended by the engine manufacturer, commercially designated as "Type 1-D" or "Type 2-D”, shall be used.
(d) The type fuel, including additive and other specifications, used under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section shall be reported in accordance with $ 1201.51 (b) (3). $ 1201.122 Dynamometer operation
cycle for smoke emission tests. (a) The following sequence of operations shall be performed during engine dynamometer testing of smoke emissions, starting with the dynamometer preloading determined and the engine preconditioned ($ 1201.127(c)).
(1) Idle mode. The engine is caused to idle for 5 to 5.5 minutes at the manufacturer's recommended low idle speed. The dynamometer controls shall be set to provide minimum load by turning the load switch to the “off” position or by adjusting the controls to the minimum load position.
(2) Acceleration mode. (i) The engine speed shall be increased to 200+50 r.p.m. above the manufacturer's recommended low idle speed within 3 seconds.
(ii) The engine shall be accelerated at full-throttle against the inertia of the engine and dynamometer or alternately against a preselected dynamometer load such that the engine speed reaches 85 to 90 percent of rated speed in 5+1.5 seconds.
(iii) When the engine reaches the speed required in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, the throttle shall be moved rapidly to the closed position and the preselected load required to perform the acceleration in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph shall be applied. The engine speed shall be reduced to the speed of maximum rated torque or 60 percent of rated speed (whichever is higher), with +50 r.p.m. Smoke emissions during this transitional mode are not used in determining smoke emissions to compare with the standard.
(iv) The throttle shall be moved rapidly to the full-throttle position and the engine accelerated against the preselected dynamometer load such that the engine speed reaches 95 to 100 percent of rated speed in 10+2 seconds.
(3) Lugging mode. (i) Proceeding from the acceleration mode, the dynamometer controls shall be adjusted to permit the engine to develop maximum horsepower at rated speed. Smoke emissions during this transitional mode are not used in determining smoke emissions to compare with the standard.
(ii) Without changing the throttle position, the dynamometer controls shall be adjusted gradually to slow the engine to the speed of maximum torque or to 60 percent of rated speed, whichever is higher. This engine lugging operation shall be performed smoothly over a period of 35+5 seconds. The rate of slowing of the engine shall be linear, within +100 r.p.m.
(4) Engine unloading. After completion of the lugging mode in subparagraph (3) (ii) of this paragraph, the dynamometer and engine shall be returned to the idle condition described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph.
(b) The procedures described in paragraph (a) (1) through (4) of this section shall be repeated until the entire cycle has been run three times. $ 1201.123 Dynamometer and engine
equipment. The following equipment shall be used for smoke emission testing of engines on engine dynamometers.
(a) An engine dynamometer with adequate characteristics to perform the test cycle described in $ 1201.122.
(b) An engine cooling system having sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures during conduct of the prescribed engine tests.
(c) A noninsulated exhaust system ex
Maximum rated Exhaust ending 12+2 feet from the exhaust
horsepower pipe size nanifold of the engine and presenting an
Less than 101.
2'' exhaust back pressure within +0.2 inches
3" Hg of the upper limit at maximum rated
4" 301 or more
5" horsepower, as established by the engine manufacturer in his sales and service (d) An engine air inlet system preliterature for vehicle application. A con senting an air inlet restriction within ventional automotive muffler of a size and +1-inch of water of the upper limit for type commonly used with the engine be the engine operating condition which ing tested shall be employed in the ex results in maximum air flow, as estabhaust system during smoke emission test lished by the engine manufacturer in his ing. The terminal 2 feet of the exhaust sales and service literature, for the pipe shall be of circular cross section and
engine being tested. be free of elbows and bends. The end of $ 1201.124 Smoke measurement system. the pipe shall be cut off squarely. The (a) Schematic drawing. The following terminal 2 feet of the exhaust pipe shall
figure (fig. 7) is a schematic drawing of have a diameter in accordance with the the optical system of the light extinction engine being tested, as specified below: meter.
COLLIMATED LIGHT FROM SOURCE
OPTICAL COMPONENT FOR LIMITING
Figure. 7. USPHS smokemeter optical system (schematic), (b) Equipment. The following equip- light detector, directly opposed to the ment shall be used in the system:
light source, measures the amount of (1) Adapter--the smokemeter optical light blocked by the smoke in the exunit may be mounted on a fixed or mov haust. The detector sensitivity is restrictable frame. The normal unrestr.cted ed to the visual range and comparable to shape of the exhaust plume shall not be that of the human eye. A collimating modified by the adapter, the meter, or tube with apertures equal to the beam any ventilation system used to remove diameter is attached to the detector. It the exhaust from the test site.
restricts the viewing angle of the detector (2) Smokemeter (light extinction me to within 16° included angle. An ampliter)--continuous recording, full-flow fied signal corresponding to the amount light obscuration meter. It shall be po of light blocked is recorded continuously sitioned near the end of the exhaust pipe on a remote recorder. An air curtain so that a built-in light beam traverses across the light source and detector winthe exhaust smoke plume which issues dow assemblies may be used to minimize from the pipe at right angles to the deposition of smoke particles on those axis of the plume. The light source is an surfaces provided that it does not measincandescent lamp operated at a con urably affect the opacity of the plume. stant voltage of not less than 15 percent The meter consists of two units, an opof the manufacturer's specified voltage. tical unit and a remote control unit. The lamp output is collimated to a beam Light extinction meters employing subwith a nominal diameter of 1.125 inches. stantially identical measurment prinThe angle of divergence of the collimated ciples and producing substantially beam shall be within 4° included angle. A equivalent results but which employ
other electronic and optical techniques & 1201.125 Information to be recorded. may be used only after having been ap
The following information shall be reproved in advance by the Secretary.
corded with respect to each test: (3) Recorder—a continuous recorder,
(a) Test number. with variable chart speed over a minimal
(b) Date and time of day. range of 0.5 to 8.0 inches per minute (or
(c) Instrument operator. equivalent) and an automatic marker in
(d) Engine operator. dicating 1-second intervals shall be used
(e) Engine Identification numbersfor continuously recording the transient
Date of manufacture-Number of hours conditions of exhaust gas opacity, engine
of operation accumulated on enginer.p.m. and torque. The recorder scale for
Engine Family-Exhaust pipe diameopacity shall be linear and calibrated to
ter-Fuel injector type-Maximum read from 0 to 100 percent opacity full
measured fuel rate at maximum measscale. The opacity trace shall have a reso
ured torque and horsepower-Air aspilution within 1 percent opacity. The re
ration system-Low idle r.p.m.-Maxicorder scale for engine r.p.m. and the
mum governed r.p.m.-Maximum measrecorder scale for observed engine torque
ured horsepower at r.p.m.-Maximum shall be linear and shall have full scale
measured torque at r.p.m.-Exhaust syscalibration such as to facilitate chart
tem back pressure-Air inlet restriction. reading. The r.p.m. trace shall have a
(f) Smokemeter. Number—Zero conresolution within 30 r.p.m. The torque
trol setting—Calibration control settrace shall have a resolution within 10
ting—Gain. lb.-ft. Any means other than strip chart
(g) Recorder chart. Identify zero recorder may be used provided it pro
traces-Calibration traces-Idle tracesduces a permanent visual data record of
Acceleration and lug-down test tracesquality equal to or better than that de
Start and finish of each test. scribed above.
(h) Ambient temperature in dyna(4) The recorder used with the smoke
mometer testing room. meter shall be capable of full-scale de
(i) Engine intake air temperature and flection in 0.5 second or less. The smoke
h meter-recorder combination may be
(j) Barometric pressure. damped so that signals with a frequency
(k) Observed engine torque. higher than 10 cycles per second are attenuated. A separate low-pass electronic § 1201.126 Instrument checks. filter with the following performance (a) The smokemeter shall be checked characteristics may be installed between according to the following procedure the smokemeter and the recorder to
prior to each test: achieve the high-frequency attenuation.
(1) The optical surfaces of the optical (i) 3 decibel point-10 cycle3 per
section shall be checked to verify that second.
they are clean and free of foreign mate(ii) Insertion loss-zero +0.5 decibels.
rial and fingerprints. (iii) Selectivity-12 decibels per octave
(2) The zero control shall be adjusted above 10 cycles per second.
under conditions of “no smoke" to give (iv) Attenuation—27 decibles down at
a recorder trace of zero. 40 cycles per second minimum.
(3) Calibrated neutral density filters (c) Assembling equipment. (1) The having approximately 20 percent and 40 optical unit of the smokemeter shall be percent opacity shall be employed to mounted radially to the exhaust pipe so check the linearity of the instrument. that the measurement will be made at The filter (s) shall be inserted in the light right angles to the axis of the exhaust
path perpendicular to the axis of the plume. The distance from the optical beam and adjacent to the opening from centerline to the exhaust pipe outlet shall which the beam of light from the light be 1.0 to 1.5 pipe diameters but never less source emanates, and the recorder rethan 4 inches. The full flow of the ex sponse shall be noted. The nominal haust stream shall be centered between opacity valve of the filter will be conthe source and detector apertures (or firmed by the Secretary. Deviations in windows and lenses) and on the axis of excess of 1 percent of the nominal opacthe light beam.
ity shall be corrected. (2) Power shall be supplied to the con- (b) The instruments for measuring trol unit of the smokemeter in time at and recording engine r.p.m., engine least 15 minutes prior to testing to allow torque, air inlet restrictions, exhaust sysfor stabilization.
tem back pressure, etc., which are used in