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(2) The engine dynamometer shall be operated at a constant speed of 2,000 r.p.m.+100 r.p.m. (exception: representative engine speed for a given displacement engine as determined by its application, but not less than 1,800 r.p.m. nor greater than 2,500 r.p.m.).
(3) The idle operating mode shall be carried out at the manufacturer's recommended engine speed. The CT operating mode shall be carried out at the same engine speed as in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.
(b) The following equipment shall be used for dynamometer tests.
(1) An engine dynamometer capable of maintaining constant speed+100 r.p.m. from full throttle to closed throttle motoring.
(2) A chassis-type exhaust system or substantially equivalent exhaust system, shall be used.
(3) A radiator typical of that used with the engine in a vehicle, or other means of engine cooling which will main tain the engine operating temperatures at approximately the same temperature
as would the radiator, shall be used. An auxiliary fixed speed fan may be used to maintain engine cooling during sustained operation on the dynamometer. $ 1201.103 Dynamometer procedures.
An initial 5-minute idle, two warmup cycles, and two hot cycles constitute a a complete dynamometer run. Idle modes may be run at the beginning and end of each test, thus eliminating the need to change speed between cycles. One idle mode preceding the first cycle and one following the fourth cycle is sufficient. The results of the first idle shall be used for calculation of the second cycle emissions and the fourth idle results shall be used for calculation of the third cycle emissions. $ 1201.104 Sampling and analytical sys.
tem for measuring exhaust emissions. (a) Schematic drawing. The following (fig. 6) is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas sampling and analytical system which shall be used for testing under the regulations in this subpart.
(b) Component description. The following components shall be used in sampling and analytical systems for testing under the regulations in this part.
(1) Flowmeters FLI, FL2, FL3, and FL4 indicate the sample flow rate through the analyzers.
(2) Low range hydrocarbon analyzer.
(6) Pressure gauges P1, P2, and P3 indicate the analyzer sample pressure.
(7) Needle valves N1, N2, N3, and N4 regulate sample flow rate to the analyzers.
(8) Needle valves N5, N6, N7, N8, NO, and N10 regulate the flow rates of N, and normalizing gases to the analyzers.
(9) Ball valves Vi, V2, and V3 for directing either sample or calibration gases to the analyzers.
(10) Needle valves N11, N12, and N13 regulate the sample flow rate through the bypass network.
(11) Flowmeters FL5, FL6, and FL7 indicate the flow rate through the bypass system.
(12) Pumps P1, P2, and P3 for pulling sample frori. source.
(13) Filters Fi, F2, and F3 remove contaminants from sample prior to analysis.
(14) Ball valves V4, V5, and V6 for directing sample to the analyzer or directing air in the reverse direction as a backflush
(15) Toggle valves V8, V9, V10, and V11 for draining condensate traps and refrigerated bath.
(16) Traps T1, T2, and T3 for condensing water vapor and cooling exhaust sample.
(17) Ball valve V7 for diverting air to low HC analyzer during periods of high hydrocarbon response.
(18) Needle valve N14 for regulating air flow to low hydrocarbon analyzer during purge conditions.
(19) Thermometer for indicating bath temperature.
(20) Refrigerated water bath for condensing water vapor and cooling exhaust sample.
(21) Sample line from vehicle to analysis system.
(22) Sample probe to extract exhaust gas sample downstream of muffler.
(23) Ball valve V12 for directing N2 to hydrocarbon analyzers.
(c) Hang up reduction. Stringent methods to reduce hang up may be em
ployed. All methods must be approved in advance by the Secretary. $ 1201.105 Information to be recorded
on charts. The following information shall be recorded with respect to each test:
(a) Test number.
(c) Date and time of day for each part of the test schedule.
(d) Instrument Operator.
(f) Engine Make-identification number—date of manufacture-number of hours — engine displacement - engine family-idle r.p.m.-number carburetors-number of carburetor venturis.
(g) All pertinent instrument information such as tuning-gain-serial numbers—detector numbers-range.
(h) Recorder Charts: Identify zero, span, exhaust gas sample traces.
(i) Barometric pressure, intake air temperature and humidity and, as applicable, the temperature of the air in front of the radiator during the test.
(j) A continuous trace of intake manifold vacuum and engine r.p.m., recorded on the same chart with an automatic marker indicating one second intervals. f 1201.106 Calibration and instrument
checks. (a) The instrument assembly shall e calibrated at least once every 30 days, using the same flow rate as when sampling exhaust and proceeding as follows:
(1) Tune analyzers.
(2) Zero on nitrogen: Check each cylinder of N, for contamination with hydrocarbons. Set the instrument gain to give the desired range. Normal operating ranges are as follows: Low-Range Hydrocar. 0-1,000 p.p.m. hexbon Analyzer.
ane equivalent. High-Range Hydrocar. 0-10,000 p.p.m. hexbon Analyzer.
ane equivalent. CO Analyz
0-10% CO. CO2 Analyzer.--
0–16% CO. (3) Calibrate with the following normalizing gases. Flow rates should be set at 10 c.f.h. on the hydrocarbon analyzers and 5 c.f.h. on the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzers. The concentrations given indicate nominal concentrations, and actual concentrations should be known to within +2 percent of true value. Prepurified N, is used as the diluent.
Low range HC analyzer
High range HC analyzer
CO and CO2 analyzers
Blend of CO and CO2 containing:
Mole Mole percent Plus percent
Herane equivalent 1 Herame equivalent Co CO2
0. 5 16.0
6.0 10. 0
1 The hexane is prescribed to Minimum storage temperature of the cylinders shall be 60° F.; minimum use temperature shall be 68°F. (4) Compare values with previous curves. Any significant change reflects some problem in the system. Locate and correct problem, and recalibrate. Use best judgment in selecting curve for data reduction. (5) Check response of hydrocarbon analyzer to 100 percent CO2. If response is greater than 0.5 percent full scale, refill filter cells with 100 percent CO2 and recheck. Note any remaining response on chart. If response still exceeds 0.5 percent, replace detector. (6) Check response of hydrocarbon analyzers to nitrogen saturated with water at ambient temperature. Record ambient temperature. If the low-range instrument response exceeds 5 percent of full scale with Saturated nitrogen at 75° F., replace the detector. If the high-range response exceeds 0.5 percent of full scale, check detector on low-range instrument, then reject if response exceeds 5 percent Of full Scale at 75° F. (b) The following daily instrument check shall be performed, allowing a minimum of 2 hours warmup for infrared analyzers. (Power is normally left on continuously; but, when instruments are not in use, chopper motor is turned off.): (1) Zero on clean nitrogen introduced at analyzer inlet. Obtain a stable zero On the amplifier meter and recorder. Recheck after test. (2) Introduce normalizing gas and set gain to match calibration curve. In order to avoid a correction for sample cell pressure, normalize and calibrate at the same flow rates used for exhaust sampling. Normalizing or span gases: (See paragraph (a)(3) of this section for allowable Variation.)
uivalent of propane, when used as the normalizing gas for calibrating nondispersive infrared analyzers, 0.52 (Propane ConcentrationX0.52=Hexane Equivalent o
(a) The engine shall be allowed to stand with engine turned off for at least 1 hour before the exhaust emission test at an ambient temperature of 60° F. to 86° F. The engine shall be stored prior to the emission tests in Such a manner that it is not exposed to precipitation or condensation. During the dynamometer run, the ambient temperature shall be between 68°F. and 86°F. (b) The following steps shall be taken for each test: (1) Mount test engine on the engine dynamometer. (2) Calibrate exhaust emission analyzer assembly. (3) Start cooling system, if it is to be used. (4) Start engine and idle at 1,0001,200 r.p.m. for 5 minutes. (5) Obtain normal idle speed, record it, and start exhaust sampling. (6) Run four 9-mode cycles. (c) Upon completion of the test, purge the sample line with nitrogen to establish a constant hydrocarbon “hangup." level. The hydrocarbon concentration shall drop to 5 percent of scale in 10
seconds, and 3 percent of scale in 3 minutes, or the test is invalid. Check calibration of exhaust emission instruments. A drift in excess of +2 percent of scale in the calibration of any one of the exhaust emission analyzers will invalidate the test results.
§ 1201.108 Chart reading.
The recorder response for measuring exhaust gas concentrations always lags the engine's operation because of a variable exhaust System delay and a fixed sample system delay. Therefore, the concentrations for each mode will not be located on the charts at a point corresponding to the exact time of the mode. For each warmup or hot cycle to be evaluated, proceed as follows: (a) Determine whether the cycle was run in accordance with the specified cycle timing by observing either chart pips, Speed trace, manifold vacuum trace, or concentration traces. Deviation by more than 2 seconds from the specified time for the closed throttle mode (sequence 9) or deviation of more than +0.2’’ Hg from the Specified mode vacuums during the last 10 seconds of a mode will invalidate the data. (b) Time correlate the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide charts. Determine the location on the chart of concentrations corresponding to each mode. Determine and compensate for trace abnormalities. (c) For all open throttle (3”, 10’’, 16”, and 19" Hg) and idle modes, integrate the last 3 Seconds of the HC, CO and CO2 traces. (d) The values recorded for the initial idle mode are used for both warmup cycles 1 and 2. The final idle mode values are applied to hot cycles 3 and 4. (e) Intergrate the complete HC, CO, and CO2 traces during this 43-second closed throttle mode of each cycle. (f) Direct computer analysis of analyzer output may be utilized provided that the analysis is sufficiently similar to the above procedures to result in comparable data results.
§ 1201.109 Calculations.
The final reported test results shall be derived through the following steps:
(a) Determine composite hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide concentrations for the first and second cycles. Average the results of these two cycles.
(b) Determine composite hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide concentrations for
the third and fourth cycles. Average the results of these two cycles.
(c) Combine the results of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section according to the formula: 0.35(a) plus 0.65 (b) . Since hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are all measured with essentially the same moisture content. no moisture correction is required to convert the results to a dry basis. The correction factor:
shall be applied to the measured concemtrations of hydrocarbon and carbor. monoxide to correct these observed values for dilution of the exhaust.
§ 1201.110 Test engines.
(a) The engines covered by the application for certification will be divided into engine families based upon the criteria outlined in § 1201.89 (a). (b) Emission data engines: (1) Engines will be chosen to be run for emission data based upon the engine family groupings. Within each engine family, the requirements of this paragraph must be met. (2) Engines of each engine family will be divided into engine displacementexhaust emission control system combinations. A projected sales volume will be established for each combination for the model year for which certification is sought. One engine of each combination will be selected in order of decreasing projected sales volume until 70 percent of the projected Sales of a manufacturer's total production of engines of that family is represented, or until a maximum of four engines is selected. The engines selected for each combination will be specified by the Secretary as to fuel system. (3) The Secretary may select a maximum of two additional engines within each engine family based upon features indicating that they may have the highest emission levels of the engines in that engine family. In selecting these engines, the Secretary will consider such features as the exhaust emission control system, induction System characteristics, ignition System characteristics, fuel system, rated horsepower, rated torque, and compresSion ratio. (4) If the engines selected in accordance with subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph do not represent each engine-system combination, then one engine of each engine-system combination not represented shall be selected by
! system in that family will be selected so
that the durability data fleet shall contain at least two engines with each control system. The additional engine will be selected in the same manner as engines selected under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. (3) A manufacturer may elect to Operate and test additional engines to represent any engine-system combination. The additional engines must be of the same engine displacement and fuel System as the engine selected for that combination in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. Notice of an intent to run additional engines shall be given to the Secretary not later than 30 days following notification of the test fleet selection. (d) Any manufacturer whose projected sales of new motor vehicle engines subject to this subpart for the model year for which certification is sought is less than 700 engines may request a reduction in the number of test engines determined in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this section. The Secretary may agree to such lesser number as he determines will meet the objectives of this procedure. (e) In lieu of testing an emission data or durability data vehicle selected under paragraph (b) or (c) of this section and submitting data therefor, a manufacturer may, with the prior written approval of the Secretary, submit data on a similar vehicle for which certification has previously been obtained.
§ 1201.111 Maintenance.
(a) (1) Maintenance on the engines and fuel systems of durability engines
may be performed only under the following provisions: (i) Two major engine tuneups to manufacturer's specifications may be performed at 500 and 1,000 hours (+8 hours) of scheduled dynamometer operation with the following exception: On engines with a displacement of 200 cubic inches or less, a major engine tuneup may be performed at 375, 750, and 1,125 hours (+8 hours) of scheduled dynamometer operation. A major engine tuneup shall be restricted to the following: (a) Replace spark plugs. (b) Inspect ignition wiring and replace as required. (c) Replace distributor breaker points and condensor as required. (d) Lubricate distributor cam. (e) Check distributor advance and breaker point dwell angle and adjust as required. (f) Check automatic choke for free operation and correct as required. (g) Adjust carburetor idle speed and mixture. (h) Adjust drive belt tension on engine accessories. (i) Adjust valve lash if required. (j) Check exhaust heat control valve for free operation. (k) Check engine bolt torque and tighten as required. (ii) Spark plugs may be changed if a persistent misfire is detected. (iii) Normal services (engine oil change, and oil filter, fuel filter and air filter servicing) will be allowed at manufacturer's recommended intervals. (iv) The crankcase emission control system may be serviced at 375-hour intervals (+8 hours) of dynamometer operation. (v) Readjustment of the engine choke mechanism or idle settings may be performed only if there is a problem of stalling at idle. (vi) Leaks in the fuel system, engine lubrication system and cooling system may be repaired. (vii) Any other engine or fuel system maintenance or repairs will be allowed only with the advance approval of the Secretary. (2) Allowable maintenance on emission data engines shall be limited to the adjustment of engine idle speed at the 125-hour test point. (b) Complete emission tests (see §§ 1201.101–1201.109) shall be run before and after any engine maintenance which