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received in FY 1979.
The proposed Local Government budget for FY 1981 is 9
percent less than that of two years ago; the State Government budget is 36
percent less than that of two years ago, and the Science and Technology
Resources budget is 33 percent less than that of two years ago.
According to the budget justification supplied by the agency,
proposed funding levels for these subactivities will provide for "reduced support within the Local Government Program" for innovation activities,
"reduced number of State government projects" and "minimal support for the
slated for only 6 percent increases, less than the prevailing inflation rate.
This can only mean that, in "real" dollar terms, these Subactivities will
actually suffer cutbacks, rather than enjoy increases.
The FY 1981 budget will launch NSF toward new, important horizons in
But now that we know where we're going, we can't
afford to forget, or ignore, where we've been.
Mr. BROWN. We welcome Dr. Sanderson, Assistant Director for Engineering and Applied Science. You may proceed with your statement.
Dr. SANDERSON. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
In the interest of time, I would like to submit my formal statement for the record and simply give you a few introductory remarks.
Mr. Brown. Without objection, so ordered.
DR. JACK T. SANDERSON
Dr. Jack T. Sanderson became Assistant Director for Engineering and Applied Science (EAS) when this Directorate was established on July 1, 1979. Dr. Sanderson had been Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications, which merged with the Engineering Division to form the Directorate for Engineering and Applied Science.
Dr. Sanderson had previously served as Assistant Director for Research Applications, Director of the Office of Planning and Resources Management, and Acting Deputy Assistant Director for Science Education. Before joining the Foundation in 1971, Dr. Sanderson had been lecturer, Director of the Cyclotron Laboratory, and Assistant Director of the Physics Laboratories at Harvard University.
Dr. Sanderson's primary research areas have been in solid state physics, especially nuclear magnetic and electron paramagnetic resonance, low temperature and nuclear orientation. He has also done experiments in high-energy proton and electron scattering.
Dr. Sanderson was born in Russellville, Alabama. He received an A.B. in physics and chemistry at Harvard University in 1958 and was awarded a Master's and a Ph. D. at Harvard in 1967.
He is a member of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Cryogenic Society, and Sigma Xi.
Dr. and Mrs. Sanderson and their two daughters, Caroline and Nicole, reside in Alexandria, Virginia.
STATEMENT OF DR. JACK T. SANDERSON, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR
FOR ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE, NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, ACCOMPANIED BY DR. RICHARD C. ATKINSON, DI. RECTOR, NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION; DR. GEORGE C. PI. MENTEL, DEPUTY DIRECTOR, NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION; AND DR. DAVID RAGONE, MEMBER, NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD
Dr. SANDERSON. Since last year, the National Science Foundation has moved to significantly strengthen both engineering and applied research in the National Science Foundation by the creation of the Directorate for Engineering and Applied Science.
For several years, the National Science Foundation's applied research programs rightly have been at the forefront of new technology and applications. It has, as my formal testimony points out, worked at building the linkage between basic knowledge and the user community and focusing scientific capabilities on a few key problems of U.S. society.
Likewise, over the history of the Foundation, the engineering disciplines have always had a foot in both camps, an orientation toward developing new fundamental knowledge important for application across a wide range of areas, and also a concern with both the end use and the application of the knowledge they generated.
I firmly believe that these programs which I am presenting here today are among the most exciting and important activities at NSF. On earlier occasions, I have had a chance to discuss with you some of our applied research and utilization programs. For example, intergovernmental science, small business and our industry-related programs, batch production, robotics and automation, regulation, telecommunication and other policy-related applied social sciences as well as our focused programs in bioresources, nutrition, R. & D. to aid the handicapped, and others.
I will be appearing before this committee later in the month specifically to discuss the earthquake program. These activities are described in brief detail in my written testimony and represent important elements in the overall NSF program.
I welcome the opportunity to discuss them in detail with you later.
But today, I would like to concentrate for a few minutes on the engineering divisions. This is my first chance to present these activities to the committee. They are among the programs selected by the National Science Board, the administration, and the research community for emphasis in the fiscal year 1981 program.
This emphasis is based on a number of factors, both internal and external to engineering. As you have heard earlier, engineering and computer sciences are currently suffering significant manpower shortages, particularly at the master and doctorate levels.
If we believe the projections which are made for the next 10 years, these shortages are likely to become worse, not better, in that time interval. It is increasingly recognized that the engineering disciplines represent significant bodies of fundamental knowledge. They are not simply applications of knowledge generated in the so-called more fundamental sciences, as some people would claim.
NSF must be concerned with the research necessary to replenish and expand that knowledge base so that it will be available when needed.
Finally, there has been increased emphasis on engineering as a result of our national concern over innovation and lagging growth in productivity as well as the need to respond to increasing scarcities in energy, petroleum, petrochemicals, and many strategic minerals.
Engineering has provided the bridge and the mechanism by which our society responds to these challenges. As a result, you will see significant growth in each of the engineering divisions.
Electrical, computer, and systems engineering is increasing by about 28 percent to $221,2 million. Many of the activities here are central to improvements in microelectronics, automation, robotics, communications and data networks, more efficient energy generation and transportation, better structures and machines, particularly the use of structures and devices in the submicron region.
Chemical and process engineering is planned at the $16.65 million level for fiscal year 1981, a growth of about 20 percent. This area of research is relevant to the entire range of chemical, petroleum, nuclear, biochemical, food, mineral, and process industries and it has historically been one of the strongest economic bases in the U.S. economy.
There is a high level of excitement in both these areas as new research activities and discoveries are providing the basis for rapid changes in the U.S. technological base.
Civil and environmental engineering is scheduled for a program of $10.125 million in fiscal year 1981, a growth of some 9 percent. A variety of research areas in structural materials, offshore structures, mechanics, water resources, and environmental engineering are being emphasized in this program. The mechanical sciences and engineering division is scheduled to increase by 14 percent to $13.325 million. This committee is particularly aware of the special challenges and opportunities in the area of mechanical sciences as a result of special hearings held last year in this area. A number of outside witnesses as well as representatives of several Federal agencies participated in those hearings.
Within this division at NSF, we are forming a new program of mechanical systems, drawing together elements of research contained in several other programs in order to respond more effectively to the identified needs for research in this area.
The emphasis in the engineering divisions combined with sharply targeted growth in other divisions represents a carefully balanced response to high priority national needs. They provide real growth in those programs recognized as providing a unique contribution to the U.S. knowledge base in engineering and to U.S. technology and innovation.
This growth is a significant component of the initiatives resulting from the President's domestic policy review on innovation. At the same time, we have managed to provide some increases in other areas. Implementation funds for the SSET program have increased to $3 million in fiscal year 1981. Modest increases have been provided in earthquake research and in applied research.
Viewed in the context of the tight Federal budget, the percentage increases in some of these areas may appear large. But, looking at the need, the economic and technical challenges we face in the future, and the demands these challenges will place on our supply of knowledge and skilled manpower; or looking at opportunity, the potential for new breakthroughs in knowledge and capability; or looking at the relatively small base on which these percentages are often calculated, these increases could more accurately be interpreted as a modest start toward meeting the challenges of the future.
With that, Mr. Brown, I would like to respond to questions. [The prepared statement of Dr. Sanderson follows:]
DR. JACK T. SANDERSON
AND APPLIED SCIENCE
Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology
U.S. House of Representatives
February 12, 1980
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:
It is indeed a pleasure to present to you the Foundation's authoriza
tion request for Engineering and Applied Science. Since our authorization hearings last year, the National Science Foundation has made several moves des igned to strengthen NSF's ability to respond in areas of engineering, applied research and social need. Specifically, by combining the engineering programs of NSF with the Applied Science and Research Applications Directorate, we have built a program concentrating on the unique role of NSF in fundamental engineering sciences and in providing the bridge between basic research and application.
The role of NSF in providing core support for research in the basic sciences has long been recognized. A significant National Science
Foundation role in the engineering disciplines has also been a long
term commitment. However, it is increasingly recognized that NSF
must play a central role in maintaining the health of fundamental engineering research across all areas of engineering, and in the sup
port of longer term research applications that fall outside the respon
sibility of other mission agencies and the private sector.