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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY,
ETHICS, AND POLITICAL ECONOMY.
ON THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF LITERATURE,
BY SIR D. K. SANDFORD, A.M., Oxon., D.C.L.
ON THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE,
BY THOMAS THOMSON, M.D., F.R.S. L. & E., &c., &c.
ON THE PROGRESS OF THE FINE ARTS,
BY ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, Esq.
BLACKIE & SON, QUEEN STREET, GLASGOW;
SOUTH COLLEGE STREET, EDINBURGH;
AND WARWICK SQUARE, LONDON.
MISSOLONGHI, or MISSOLUNGHI; till 1826 the plague desolated the camp of the barbarians. Musprincipal stronghold of the Greeks in Western Greece tai, in his hasty retreat, lost his artillery and his (in the ancient Ætolia). Surrounded by morasses,
Mavrocordato now remained master of the Missolonghi is situated on an alluvial tongue of land, place, and directed affairs in Western Hellas. There on a shallow bay, west of the entrance of the gulf of was also in Missolonghi a school of ancient Greek, Patras and of the outlet of the Evenus (now the Missolonghi was also the death-place of lord Byron, Fidaris), and east of the mouth of the Achelous who arrived at the end of January, 1824, and died, (Dow Aspropotamo), and was the bulwark of Western April 19th of the same year. Mavrocordato was Greece in the late struggle with Turkey. The dikes | called to Nauplia, and in 1825, deprived of his office formed by the alluvion, secure the lower parts of the by the party of Colocotroni. The seraskier Redshid place against inundations, and the lagoons and shal. Pacha now appeared before Missolonghi, with 35,000 lows protect the city against an attack by sea. Mis- The brave Noto Botzaris (uncle of Marco) desolonghi, also called by the Greeks Little Venice, fended the place successfully, and the assaults of the was, originally, a fishing village, with about 300 seraskier, aided by the fleet of the capudan pacha, inhabitants. At the entrance to the fishing stations after the walls had suffered from a bombardment of lies the island of Anatolico, likewise fortified. Both forty days, were repulsed in the beginning of August, places can be approached only by fishing boats; the 1825. ibrahim Pacha, with the Egyptian army, then roadsteads for larger vessels are four or five miles joined in the siege. But all assaults were baffled: distant. Previous to 1804 Missolonghi, which was continued bombardments at length reduced the place protected from the pestilential atmosphere of the to a heap of ruins, and the heroic garrison determined marshes and lagoons by a north wind that blows to force a passage through the besiegers. This was every afternoon, contained about 4000 inhabitants attempted at about eight o'clock in the evening of (among whom were rich merchants and shipmasters), April 22, 1826, while the sick, aged, and wounded, most of whom left the place on account of the war. with many women, remained behind in a large mill, It was then governed chiefly by its own laws, merely which contained a quantity of powder, and which paying to the pacha of Negropont the customary poll | they prepared to blow up as soon as it was entered tax. In 1804, it fell under the dominion of Ali | by the Turks. An old wounded soldier took his seat Pacha. Missolonghi and Anatolico raised the banner on a mine, and fired it as soon as they entered the of the cross June 7, 1821, when the Hydriot fleet town. About 1800, under the command of Noto appeared in their waters. After the bloody campaign Botzaris and Kitros Travellas reached Salona, and of 1822, in Acarnania, the commander-in-chief, prince afterwards fought at Athens.—See Fabre's Hist. da Marrocordato, threw himself (Nov. 5th), with 380 Siège de Missolunghi (Paris, 1826). men and twenty-two Suliots, under Marco Botzaris, MISSOURI; a very large river in the United into Missolonghi, which was then untenable and States, which unites with the Mississippi a little bealmost deserted, and defended it, with but little low latitude 39o. It rises in the Rocky mountains, artillery and ammunition, against Omer Vrione, and takes the name Missouri in latitude 45° 10' N. pacha of Janina, and Rutshuk Pacha, till on the 23d and longitude 110° W., where the three branches, Nov., it was relieved and reinforced by sea. Mavro- | Jefferson, Gallatin, and Madison, unite. The spring cordato afterwards repulsed several assaults, and com- sources of the Missouri, and those of the Columbia pelled the Turks to raise the siege January 6, 1823. which flows west to the Pacific, are within a mile of Missolonghi, with Anatolico, was then fortified under each other. The three head branches of the Missouri the superintendence of British officers, partly at the are navigable for a considerable distance before their expense of Murray, an Englishman, so that it was junction. Where the river makes its escape from the rendered one of the strongest places of Greece. Mis- | Rocky mountains, it presents a scene of remarkable solonghi sustained a second siege of fifty-nine days, in sublimity. For a distance of nearly six miles, the September, October, and December, 1823, when rocks rise perpendicularly from the water's edge Mustai, pacha of Scutari, with Omer Vrione, in- 1200 feet. The river is compressed to the width of vested it by land, and several Algerine vessels by 150 yards, where it rushes through these gates of the
It was defended by Constantine Botzaris, Rocky mountains. About 110 miles from this chasm, brother of the hero of Carpinitzi. Mavrocordato are the stupendous cataracts of the Missouri. The hastened to its relief, with Hydriot vessels, and the greatest cascade is eighty-seven feet perpendicular,