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sickliness of Mobile, a few years since, to establish much sought for on account of its wonderful fathe town of Blakely, on the eastern and opposite culty of imitating the tone of every inhabitant of side of the bay, and ten miles distant from Mobile. the woods, from the twitter of the humming bird to Besides being healthy, this site has many very impor- the screain of the eagle. But its notes are not entant advantages over Mobile; but the project of estab tirely imitative ; its own song is bold, full

, and exlishing it as a substitute for Mobile, entirely failed. ceedingly varied, during the utterance of which it Only New Orleans and Charleston are before Mobile appears in an ecstasy of delight. In confinement, it in the cotton trade, and Charleston is declining, loses little of its power or energy, To use the while Mobile is rapidly increasing. The value of words of Wilson, “He whistles for the dog ; Cæsar esports of domestic produce from Alabama in 1829, starts up, wags his tail, and runs to meet his master. was 1,679,385 dollars; and nearly the whole of this He squeaks out like a hurt chicken, and the hen must have been shipped at Mobile. This city has a hurries about, with hanging wings and bristled régular steam-boat communication with New Orleans feathers, clucking, to protect her injured brood. through lake Ponchartrain. During most of the year, The barking of the dog, the mewing of the cat, the steam-boats are constantly plying between this place creaking of the passing wheelbarrow, follow with and the towns on the river, and many vessels are great truth and rapidity. He repeats the tune taught luading at the wharves for distant ports.

him by his master, though of considerable length, JIOBILE; a river of Alabama, formed by the fully and faithfully. He runs over the quiverings of union of the Alabama and the Tombeckbee. It the canary, or the clear whistlings of the Virginia takes the name of Mobile where these two rivers nightingale or red-bird, with such superior execution unite at fort Mimms. It enters Mobile bay by two and effect, that the mortified songsters feel their own mouths. The Alabama is the eastern branch, and inferiority, and become altogether silent; while he rises in the Alleghany ridges of Georgia. It receives seems to triumph in their defeat, by redoubling his & number of small streams, and becomes navigable exertions.”—The female lays from four to five eggs, fur small sea vessels at fort Claiborne. Similar ves- of an ash-blue colour, marked with patches of brown; seis ascend the Tombeckbee to the mouth of the she incubates fourteen days, and is extremely jealous Black Warrior, eighty miles above St Stephens. At of her nest, being very apt to desert it if much dismoderate stages of water it affords steam-boat navi- turbed. During the period when the young are in gation to Tuscaloosa, 320 miles from Mobile. Both the nest, neither cat, dog, nor man can approach it these rivers are very favourable to boat navigation. without being attacked. When intended for the The lands on their' borders are excellent, and pro- cage, they are either taken from the nest when they duce great quantities of cotton.

are very young, or at a later period by trap-cages. MOBILITY; a contingent property of bodies, MODALITY. Kant uses this word for that catebut most essential to their constitution. "Every body gory (see Kant) which determines the relation of all at rest can be put in motion, and if no impediment the ideas of the judgment to our understanding. intervenes, this change may be effected by the slight. The logical modality of Kant is, therefore, the manest external impression. Thus the largest cannon ner in which the understanding conceives the conball, suspended freely by a rod or chain from a lofty nexion and relation of ideas in a judgment; whether ceiling, is visibly agitated by the horizontal stroke of we leave something undecided, as in problematical a swan shot which has gained some velocity in its judgments, or give the thing as true, as in assertory descent through the arc of a pendulum. in like judgments, or are obliged to consider a certain conmanner, a ship of any burden is, in calm weather and nexion of ideas to be true, as in apodictical judg. smooth water, gradually pulled along even by the ments. For further information, see the article exertions of a boy. A certain measure of force, in- Kant. deed, is often required to commence or to maintain MODE; a particular system, or constitution of the motion; but this consideration is wholly extrin. sounds, by which the octave is divided into certain sic, and depends on the obstacles at first to be over- intervals according to the genus. The doctrine of come, and on the resistance which is afterwards the ancients respecting modes is rendered somewhat encountered. If the adhesion and intervention of obscure, by the difference among their authors as to other bodies were absolutely precluded, motion the definitions, divisions, and names of their modes. would be generated by the smallest pressure, and some place the specific variations of tones, or modes, would continue with undiminished energy.

in the manner of division, or order of the concionous MOCHA, or MOKKA ; a town on the Arabian parts; and others merely in the different tension of sea, in the province of Yemen, with a commodious the whole; that is, as the whole series of notes are harbour, and about 6000 inhabitants, including seve. more acute or grave, or as they stand higher or ral hundred Jews and about 500 Banians. It is lower in the great 'scale of sounds. While the frequented by merchants from the Barbary States, ancient music was confined within the narrow bounds Egypt, Turkey, and India, and by British, French, of the tetrachord, the heptachord, and octachord, and North American ships. The coffee which bears there were only three modes admitted, whose fundathe name of the town, is brought down from the mentals were one tone distant from each other. The interior of the country by caravans. Gum Arabic, gravest of these was called the Dorian ; the Phrycopal, mastich, myrrh, frankincense, indigo, senna, gian was in the middle, and the acutest was the and other articles, are exported. The imports are Lydian. In dividing each of these tones into two chiefly Indian commodities. The trade is most active intervals, place was given to two other modes, the lonbetween May and August, in which period about 100 ian and the Æolian; the first of which was inserted ships enter the port. There are several mosques, between the Dorian and Phrygian, and the second caravansaries, and European factories bere. Lon. between the Phrygian and Lydian. 43° 10° E. ; lat. 13° 16' N.

being at length extended both upward and downMOCKING BIRD (turdus polyglottos). This ward, new modes were established, taking their capricious little mimic is of a cinereous colour; paler denomination from the five first, by joining the prebeneath. It inhabits America from New England to position hyper (over or above) for those added at the Brazil, but is rare and migratory in the Northern acute extremity, and the preposition hypo (under) for States, whilst it is common and resident in the South- those below. Thus the Lydian mode was followed ern. This bird, although it cannot vie with most of by the Hyper-Dorian, the Hyper-Ionian, the Hyperthe American species in brilliancy of plumage, is Phrygian, the Hyper- Eolian, and the Hyper-Lydian,

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in ascending ; and the Dorian mode was succeeded | Reggio, Mirandola, Correggio (birth-place of the by the Hypo-Lydian, Hypo-Æolian, Hypo-Phrygian, celebrated painter), Carpol, and Rivoli, together Hypo-lonian, and the Hypo-Dorian, in descending with Massa and Carrara, and the former Imperial The moderns, however, only reckon two modes, the Fiefs, are united with the duchy of Modena proper to major and the minor. The major mode is that divi- constitute one government; superficial extent of the sion of the octave by which the intervals between the whole, 2000 square miles ; population, 375,000. The third and fourth, and seventh and eighth, become half territory is fertile and well cultivated, the climate, tones, and all the other intervals whole tones. The in general, temperate and healthy, and the principal minor mode is that division by which the intervals productions corn, rice, fruits, wine, oil, silk, honey, between the second and third, and fifth and sixth, iron, marble, &c. The income of the state is about become half tones, and all the others whole tones. 1,500,000 forins; the armed force 2080 men. The Another distinction also, exists between the major ruling house is of the Austrian line of the house of and minor modes; the major mode is the same, both Este (see Este); the government is absolute, and the ascending and descending; but the minor mode in administration is conducted by one minister and two ascending sharpens the sixth and seventh, thereby secretaries ; the Austrian civil code is in force. The removing the half tone from between the fifth and present ducal house is descended from Cæsar of Este, sixth to the seventh and eighth.

à cousin (by a morganatic marriage) of the last duke MODEL ; an original of any kind proposed for of the former line of Este, which became extinct in copy or imitation. It is used, in building, for an 1598. The Pope Clement VIII. then took posartificial pattern formed in stone or wood, or, as is session of Ferrara, which had previously formed a most commonly the case, in plaster, with all due part of the Modenese territories, as a reverted fief of parts and proportions, for the more correct execution the papal see. In 1653, Correggio was added to the of some great work, and to afford an idea of the effect duchy by grant of the emperor of Germany, Miranto be produced. Models in imitation of any natural dola, in 1710, and Novellara, in 1737. Hercules III. or artificial substance are usually made by means of (died in 1803) married the heiress of the duchy of moulds of plaster of Paris. In painting, this is the Massa-Carrara, and left an only daughter, who was name given to a man or woman who is procured married to Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, brother to exhibit him or herself, in a state of nudity, for of Leopold II. In 1796, the French took possession the advantage of the students. These models are of the country, and it was included in the Cisalpine provided in all academies and schools for painting, republic, and afterwards in the kingdom of Italy. and the students who have acquired a tolerable use The present duke Francis IV., the son of the archof the pencil are introduced to this kind of study. duke Ferdinand, is prince of Hungary and Bohemia, By this means, the details and porportions of the and archduke of Austria. He was born in 1779, human shape, the play of the muscles, the varieties of and, in 1812, married a daughter of the king of Sarexpression, &c., are displayed and inculcated far dinia. In 1814, he entered into possession of the better than by any course of lectures or any study of estates of his grandfather, by virtue of a reversionary former works. It is desirable that the living models investment conferred on his father by the emperor, used in an academy, or even in a private painting and his claims were confirmed by the congress of room, should be changed as frequently as possible, Vienna. He assumed the name of Este, and thus or the student is in danger of falling into mannerism. became the founder of the Austrian line of Este. Millin speaks of a model, of the name of Deschamps, His mother also entered upon the government of the who did duty in this way upwards of forty years in duchy of Massa-Carrara, which she inherited from the academy at Paris, and comments on the facility her mother, and to which the congress annexed the with which this person's form and features might be re- fiefs in the Lunigiana : on her death, in 1829, these cognized, in every variety of subject or of expression, passed to her son. The house of Modena-Este also in the paintings of the students of that period. In holds the rich fideicommissa (see Fideicommissum) of sculpture a model implies a figure made of wax or the house of Obizzi, in Treviso The present duke terra cotta, or any other malleable substance, which has a son, born in 1819, and two brothers. In conthe artist moulds to guide him in fashioning his work, sequence of the arbitrary character of the duke's as the painter first makes a sketch, or the architect a government, an insurrection was organized, and the design. When a model of any existing object is to citizens of Modena, Reggio, Massa-Carrara and other be taken, the original is first to be greased, in order places took arms, with the purpose of extorting from to prevent the plaster from sticking to it, and then their rulers a more liberal form of government, in to be placed on a smooth table, previously greased, February, 1831. The duke was obliged to flee ; but or covered with a cloth, to guard against the same in March the Austrian troops entered Modena, at the accident ; then surround the original with a frame or request of the duke, and restored the authority of the ridge of glazier's putty, at such a distance as will ad- government. mit of the plaster resting upon the table, on every MODENA (Mutina); capital of the duchy of the side of the subject, for about an inch, or as much as same name, situated in a fertile plain, on the canal of may be thought sufficient to give the proper degree Modena, which unites the Secchia and the Panaro, of strength to the mould. An adequate quantity of twenty-three leagues from Florence, thirty-six from plaster is then to be poured as uniformly as possible Milan ; lat. 44° 38' N.; lon. 10° 54' E. It is the see over the whole substance, until it is everywhere of a bishop, and contains an old cathedral, at the covered to such a thickness as to give a proper sub- foot of the tower of which hangs the bucket which stance to the mould, which may vary in proportion was the subject of war between the Bolognese and to the size. The whole must then be allowed to Modenese, and of a mock heroic poem, by Tassoni, continue in this way till the plaster shall have attain- entitled La Secchia Rapita (the Rape of the Bucket), ed its firmness; when the frame being removed, the with a large number of churches. The ducal palace mould may be inverted, and the subject taken from has a fine collection of pictures, and a good library of it; and when the plaster is thoroughly dry, it should 80,000 volumes. There are also a university and other be well seasoned.

institutions, literary and charitable. The fortifications MODENA ; a sovereign duchy of Italy, lying in a are inconsiderable; the population about 25,000. fruitful plain of Lombardy, watered by the Panaro, Natives, Sigonius, Muratori, Tassoni, Fallopius. and bordering on Tuscany, Lucca, Bologna, Mantua MODERN ; that which belongs to recent times. and Parina. By an act of the congress of Vienna, The term modern history is used in different senses.

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The Germans often date the end of modern history | by more frequent change of tones, and requires a with the French revolution, and call the rest the knowledge of the relation among the various keys, most recent history. In the history of art, literature, and of the tones connecting them. As it is indispencustoms, &c., modern is frequently used in contra- sable, in longer pieces, to carry melody and harmony distinction to ancient or classical. (q. v.) “Modern through several keys, and to return at last to the civilization," says A. W. Schlegel, “ arose from the fundamental, it is necessary, in respect to such modublending together of the elements of Northern origin lation, duly to consider the character of the composiand the fragments of antiquity.” (See Romantic.) tion, and, in general, whether the modulation has In science, modern is also used in contradistinction werely in view a pleasing variety, or whether it is to ancient ; thus we speak of modern philosophy. intended to serve as the support of a grand and bold

MODILLION; an ornament resembling a bracket, expression. Considerations of this kind give to the in the louic, Corinthian, and Composite cornices. In composer the rules for particular cases, and show Grecian architecture, however, the Ionic order is where he may depart widely from the principal tone, without modillions in the cornice, as are also the and where he may remain near it ; where he may Roman examples of the same order, with the excep- thus depart suddenly, and perhaps with some harshtion of the temple of Concord, at Rome, which has ness, and where his departures ought to be slow and both modillions and dentils.

gradual; because such departures are the most imMODON (mothone); a strong city and port of the portant means of musical expression. In pieces of a Morea, on the Mediterranean; lat. 36° 51' N. ; lon. mild and quiet character, it is not permitted to modu21° 40' E. It is entirely surrounded by the sea, and late so often as in those which have to express violconnected with the main land by a wooden bridge. ent and great passions. Where every thing relating The port is unsafe, but important on account of its to expression is considered, modulation also must be road and its proximity to the gulf of Coron. The so determined by the expression that each single idea city is small and badly built; the streets narrow and in the melody shall appear in the tone which is most dirty. The Greeks became masters of it in the war proper for it. Tender and plaintive melodies ought or Grecian independence, and, in 1825, Miaulis burned only to dwell upon the flat tones, while the lighter a Turkish fleet in the road. Ibrahim Pacha took sharp tones, which must be touched in the modulation, possession of Modon soon after his arrival in the on account of the connexion, ought to be left immeMorea, but was compelled by the French to evacuate diately afterwards. It is one of the most difficult it in 1828. Previously to the war, the inhabitants parts of the art to remain steadily without fault in a amounted to about 7000. (See Morea.) In 1829, modulation. It is therefore to be regretted that those they did not exceed 500,

who write on the theory of the art, dwell so little on MODULATION, in music, is, in its most exten. this important subject, and believe themselves to have sive meaning, the diversified and proper change of done enough, if they show how the composer may tones in conducting the melody, or the progression of gracefully leave the principal tone, pass through the tones in general, and the sequences of concords. In circle of all the twenty-four tones, and return at last its narrower sense, modulation signifies that succes- to the first tone. Piccini had the best views of mosion of tones by which a musical passage proceeds dulation. Modulating," he says, is to pursue a from one key into another. In quite short pieces, certain path. The ear will follow you ; nay, it also in long compositions, in which the composition wishes to be led by you, yet upon condition that, after remains for some time in the principal tone before it you have led it to a certain point, it shall find somepasses to another, good modulation consists only in thing to reward it for its journey, and to occupy it continuing for some time melody and harmony in the for some time. If you do not consider its claims, assumed tone, with proper changes and variety, and it suffers you to go on, at last, without regard, and at last concluding in that tone. For this it is requi- every endeavour to attract it again is but lost labour.” site that, at the very beginning, the concord should To conduct a melody according to a given modula · become distinctly perceptible by the sound of its tion ; never to deviate from it, except for good reaEssential tones, the octave, fifth, and third ; and fur- son; and in the right time to return to it in the prother, that the melody, as well as harmony, should be per way, and without harshness; to make use of carried through the tones of the assumed scale, and changes in the modulation only as means of expresthat no tones foreign to it should be heard, either in sion, and, perhaps, for the necessary variety,--such the melody or in the harmony. A variety of con- are the real difficulties of the art ; while to leave imcords, nevertheless, is necessary, that the ear may mediately a key which has hardly been perceived, to enjoy the necessary variety. The composer ought ramble about without reason or object ; to leap about not, after the fashion of some contracted harmonists, because the composer does not know how to sustain to dwell always on two or three concords, or repeat himself ; in one word, to modulate in order to moduthem in transpositions, much less to return and con- late, is to miss the true aim of the art, and to affect a clude in the principal tone before the piece or the richness of invention in order to hide the want of it. first strain is finished. The rule to let only those MODULE ; an architectural measure; the lower tones be heard which belong to the assumed diameter of a column being divided into two parts, scale is to be understood thus, that a tone foreign one is a module ; and each module is divided into to the scale ought to be used merely in passing, and thirty minutes; thus neither is a determinate, but to be left again immediately; thus, for instance, in a proportionate measure. The term is also somethe scale C sharp, one could certainly go through G times used with reference to the different sizes of sharp into A flat, and through F' sharp to the domin- medals. ant, and from this back again to the principal tone, MELLENDORF, RICHARD JOACHIM HENRY, without violating, by these two tones, foreign to the count von, a Prussian general, born in 1724, was fundamental tone, C sharp, the effect of this scale, educated at Brandenburg, and, in 1740, admitted or destroying it. It is only necessary to avoid tones among the pages of Frederic II., whom he accomtotally foreign to the scale of C sharp; as, for in- panied in the first Silesian war, and was at the batstance, C sharp or D sharp. The second kind of tles of Molwitz and Chotusitz. His behaviour promodulation, or that which is so called, in a more cured him promotion, and, in 1746, he obtained a restricted sense, requires more knowledge of harmony, company in the guards. He served at the siege of and is subject to greater difficulty. It consists in the Prague, in 1757, and at the battle of Rossbach and art of giving to longer pieces the necessary variety, that of Leuthen; for his conduct on which last occa


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sion, he was rewarded with the order of merit. He gums, bees-wax, goat-skins, olive oil, ostrich feathers, was made a colonel in 1761, afterwards lieutenant- pomegranate-peels, and dates. See Morocco. general, and, in 1783, governor of Berlin. In the MÖGREBBINS ; Arabs of the western part of reign of Frederic William II., he was appointed gen- Egypt. Many of them are found at Cairo, and are eral of infantry, and commanded the Prussian troops distinguished for their industry. employed in 1793, in the disgraceful dismemberment MOGUL, See Mongols. of Poland, on which occasion Mællendorf did every MOHAMMED, the founder of a religion which thing in his power to alleviate the misfortunes of the has spread over a great part of the East, and has been Poles. On his return home, he was created a field productive of much good by the abolition of the wormarshal, and, soon after, made governor of South ship of idols, was a scion of the Arabic line of KoPrussia. He opposed the war with France which reish, and the family of Hashem, celebrated in their followed; but he succeeded the duke of Brunswick country as the princes of the holy city of Mecca, and in the command of the Prussian army on the Rhine, guardians of the kaaba. The date of his birth is in 1794, when he gained the victory of Kaiserslautern. placed with most probability in A. D. 569. Mecca He was one of the principal advisers of the treaty of was his native place. His grandfather, Abdul Basle, in 1797, after which he was made grand-mar- Motalleb, a rich and noble citizen, had thirteen sons. shal. Not being able to prevent, by his advice, hos- One of them, Abdallah, married Amira, and died tilities with France, in 1806, though far advanced in while his son Mohammed, or Mahomet, was still a years, he accepted a command, and, joining the army child. As he left little property, Mohammed was of the duke of Brunswick, was present at Jena and educated first by his grandfather, and, after his death, Auerstadt, where he was wounded. He retired to by his oldest uncle, Abu Taleb. This uncle, a merBerlin, and, subsequently to Havelberg, where, ac- chant, destined Mohammed for the same employment, cording to an odd Prussian usage, he held a prebend and was accompanied by him on a commercial jourin the ecclesiastical chapter. He died there, Jan. ney to Syria. On this occasion, he visited a Nestorian 28, 1816.

monastery, where he was especially distinguished by MÆRIS; a lake of Egypt. According to Hero- one of the monks, and received impressions which dotus, with whose account Diodorus and Mela agree, perhaps contributed to give the tone to his subsequent it was, in his time, 3600 stadia, or 450 miles in cir- character. The Mohammedan writers are very procumference, and about 300 feet deep. He states it to lix in their descriptions of the wonderful qualities of have been entirely the product of human industry. mind and body for which their prophet was eminent Modern travellers describe it as at present about from his youth; he shared, however, the general thirty or forty miles long and six broad, and assert it ignorance of his countrymen. His uncle had recomto be a natural basin. The works, therefore, which mended him as agent to a rich widow, named TIerodotus attributes to king Mæris, must have been Khadijah, and he acquitted himself so much to her the canals which connected the lake with the Nile, satisfaction, that she married him, and thus placed and the mounds, dams and sluices which rendered it him in easy circumstances. She was fifteen years subservient to the purposes of irrigation. See the older than he, but, from gratitude or prudence, he works of Pococke, Denon, Belzoni, &c., on Egypt. lived with her in happy and faithful wedlock, and,

MESIA ; a country lying north of Thrace and till her death, restrained the sensual appetites which Macedonia, and south of the Danube, corresponding he afterwards indulged. He was still a merchant, to the modern Servia and Bulgaria. It was at a re- and made a second journey to Syria, where he again mote period inhabited by Scythians, with whom the had interviews with the Nestorian monks. He seems Getæ were afterwards united. The country was to have had, from his youth, a propensity to religious conquered by the Roman emperors. The barbarians contemplation, for he was every year accustomed, in early conquered this region, and it remained in the the month Ramadan, to retire to a cave near Mecca, hands of Sclavonians and Bulgarians. See Servia, and dwell there in solitude. At what time the ideá and Bulgaria.

of a new religion came into his mind, whence, in the MESOGOTHS. See Goths.

midst of an idolatrous people, he derived the convicMOGADOR, or MAGADORE (called by the na- tion of the unity of God, and to what degree he tives Suera, or Suerrah); a sea port of Morocco, 100 blended the ambition to assume the prophetic characmiles west-south-west of Morocco; lon. 9° 20' W.; ter with the struggle for personal aggrandizement, lat. 31° 30' N. ; population, according to Jackson, are questions to which only conjectural answers can 10,000 ; to Robins, 30,000. It was founded in 1760, be given. That an untaught Arab should conceive by Sidi Mohammed, who spared no pains to make it elevated views of the state of man in his age, and the principal seat of commerce in the empire; and found on them comprehensive projects, is not credmost of the commerce between Europe and the em- ible : in all probability, his first plans were limited pire of Morocco is carried on through Mogador. It to his countrymen. That he was honest in bis zeal is built in a low, flat desert of accumulating sand, to abolish idolatry, and disseminate a purer doctrine, which separates it from the cultivated country. although he sought to obtain this object by deception, Supplies are brought from gardens from four to twelve may be easily believed, if we remember the many miles distant. The town has a beautiful appearance examples of a similar inconsistency in other legislafrom the sea, the houses being all of stone and white; tors and religious reformers. but the streets, though regular and straight, are nar- Mohammed began his pretended mission A. D. row and dirty, and the houses present a mass of dead 609, in the fortieth year of his age. He first conwall. The houses of the foreign merchants are spa- verted his wife Khadijah, to whom he communicated cious. The roofs are flat, and the terraces serve as the particulars of an interview with the angel Gabriel, a walk in the evening. It consists of two parts, one by whom he was declared an apostle of God. of which may be called the citadel, containing the Through her instrumentality, her uncle or cousin custom-house, treasury, residence of the alcaide, and Waraka was gained, who is said to have been a the houses of the foreign merchants. The Jews, who Christian, and well acquainted with the Old and New are not foreign merchants, reside in the outer town. Testaments. These were followed by Mohammed's The harbour is about two miles in circuit ; but, as the servant, Zeid, to whom he gave his freedom, and by water, at ebb-tide, is only ten or twelve feet deep, his young nephew, the fiery Ali. Of great imporlarge ships must anchor one and a half-mile distant tance was the accession of Abubeker, a man of estifrom the battery. The exports consist of almonds, | mable character, who stood in high respect, and per



11 sua led ten of the most considerable citizens of Mecca | ing credit. Good need had he of it in the following to follow his example. They were all instructed by 1 year, 625, when Abu Sophian appeared before Mohammed in the doctrines of the Islam, as the new Medina with 10,000 men. Mohammed prudently religion was styled, which were promulgated as the limited himself to the defensive; but the enemy raisgradual revelations of the divine will, ihrough the ing the seige, after twenty days, on account of internal angel Gabriel, and were collected in the Koran. discord, Mohammed, under the pretence of a divine Three years passed in the quiet dissemination of his command, led his party against the Jewish race of doctrines : in the fourth, Mohammed invited his re- Koreidha, who had made common cause with the latives of the family of Hashem to an entertainment, enemy. After twenty-five days, the Jews were conopenly announced to them his prophetic mission, and pelled to surrender their chief fortress to the will of asked which of them would undertake the office of the conqueror, who took the most bloody revenge, his vizier. All were silent, till the youthful Ali de slaughtered between 600 and 700 men, and carried clared his readiness to do so, and, at the same time, away the women and children into captivity. Some his resolution to inflict vengeance on all who should years afterwards, he also took Khaibar, the principal dare to oppose his master. In vain did Abu Taleb, seat of the Jewish power in Arabia, by which means the father of Ali, dissuade them from the undertak- he completed the subjugation of this unhappy people. ing. But, although he remained himself unconverted, it is probable that the many murders and cruelties he did much to promote the new doctrines, by pro- practised on his enemies were sufficiently justified in lecting Mohammed against his enemies, and afford- the eyes of his followers, by his divine mission ; but ing him refuge in times of danger. On several oc- they must have been highly offended by the violation casions Mohammed was attacked by the adherents of of all right and decency, of which he was guilty in idolatry with open force, and compelled to change his passion for Zeinab, the wife of his emancipated his residence ; but he often had the satisfaction of slave and adopted son Zeid, while a particular chapconverting his bitterest enemies. In the tenth year ter was introduced into the Koran, to give him power of bi, prophetic office, he suffered a severe loss in the to marry her ; this he did publicly, without regard to death of Abu Taleb and his faithful Khadijah. De a degree of relationship which the Arabs bad hitherto prived of their assistance, he was compelled to retire, held inviolable. This weakness, with respect to the for a time, to the city of Tayef. On the other hand, female sex, increased with the years and authority of he was readily, received by the pilgrims who Mohammed. Besides the numerous wives, whom visited the kaaba, and gained numerous adhe. he took at different times, he indulged in several rents among the families in the neighbourhood. At transient amours, such as are forbidden in his own this time occurred Mohammed's famous nocturnal | laws, and always justified his incontinency by new journey to heaven on the beast Alborak, under chapters in the Koran. That such shameless preGabriel's guidance, respecting which the Ko- tences could have any effect rather proves the ran contains some obscure intimations, In the credulity and fanaticism of the people than his own twelfth year, the Islam was also spread among the talents of deception. At the same time, his doctrines inhabitants of Medina (Yathreb), several of whom and authority gained ground among the neighbouring swore fidelity to the prophet, and proffered their tribes. The expeditions of his officers rarely failed to assistance. Mohammed now adopted the resolution produce a considerable booty. He was himself of encountering his enemies with force. Only the almost worshipped by his partisans. His views, meanmore exasperated at this, they formed a conspiracy while, continued to expand, and, in the seventh year of to murder him: warned of the imminent danger, he the Hegira, he sent a summons to the principal neighleft Mecca, accompanied by Abubeker alone, and bouring princes, particularly Chosrou Parviz, king of concealed hinuself in a cave not far distant. Here Persia, Heraclius, emperor of Constantinople, Mohe spent three days undiscovered, after which he kawkas, ruler of Egypt, the king of Ethiopia, and the arrived safely at Medina, but not without danger. princes of various districts of Arabia, to embrace the This event, from which the Mohammedans commence new revelation of the divine law, made through him. their era, is known under the name of the Hegira, The manner in which this embassy was received difwhich signifies flight. In Medina, Mohammed met fered according to the power and pride of those to with the most honourable reception : thither he was whom it was directed. The more remote and powerful followed by many of his adherents. Mohammed gave no heed to it: on the contrary, the weaker and now assumed the sacerdotal and regal dignity, mar- nearer, who were informed of his increasing power, had ried Ayesha, daughter of Abubeker, and, as the cause to fear his arms. It was of particular importance number of the faithful continued to increase, declared to him no longer to be an exile from Mecca, the holy his resolution to propagate his doctrines with the city, which was in a high degree the object of the adosword. The hopes of booty added new fervour to the ration of the Arabs. He appeared, therefore, at the religious zeal of his partisans. Their first great head of 1400 men, with the ostensible purpose of military exploit was the spoiling of a rich caravan, peaceably visiting the temple of Mecca. The Koreled by Abu Sophian, the chief of the Koreishites, ishites opposed his entrance, and compelled him to a with a strong guard. Mohammed surprised them, treaty in the seventh year of the legira. For three vith an inferior force, in the valley of Beder, and days only, he and his partisans were to be allowed to infiicted on them a total defeat. He took a rich pay their devotions, unarmed, in the kaaba ; on the booty, and a number of prisoners. Other successful fourth day, he was to withdraw. He succeeded, howenterprises followed; but, in the third year of the ever, on this occasion, in converting three persons of Hegira, Abu Sophian, with 3000 soldiers, attacked influence among the Koreishites, who had afterwards Mohammed with 950, on mount Ohud, not far from still greater renown among the Moslems—Caled, Medina. A desperate conflict ensued, in which the Amru, and Othman. In the eighth year of the Hegira, Moslems were utterly beaten, and the wounded pro- a Mohammedan army, under Zeid's command, advancphet hardly saved his life. This misfortune naturally ed against the city of Muta, in Palestine, where the shook the authority of him whose pretended mission governor of the emperor Heraclius had murdered a from God should have secured him the victory. But Moslem ambassador. Zeid was slain, and the defeat hy attributing the fault to the sins of the Moslems, of the Moslems was prevented solely by the courage by promising the slain a paradise provided with all of Caled, who, on this occasion, obtained the appelses sual enjoyments, and inculcating an unconditional lation of “ sword of God.” A breach of compact on presiestination, le succeeded in restoring his totter-| the part of the Koreishites gave Mohummed tie

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