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and the next is forty-seven. Within a space of scarcely more than in the variety and beauty of its eighteen miles, the river descends 357 feet. These flowers. Many of the species are seen through falls are almost the only obstruction to the naviga- summer and autumn. The climate is extremely tion of the river, even to its head branches, 251 | fickle and variable, and the changes of temperature miles above the falls. These distances are given are very great. The prevailing winds follow the from Lewis and Clarke; and, according to their direction of the Mississippi Valley; those from the estimates, the whole length of the Missouri, above northward are cold, and the southern are warm. its junction with the Mississippi, is more than 3100 Winter commences in its severity about Christmas, miles. Add to this the distance from the mouth of and is frequently so severe, that the Missouri is pasthe Missouri to the gulf of Mexico, and the sum will sable on the ice with loaded teams, for many weeks. be nearly 4400 miles. We have no means, at present, The' summers are very warm. Less rain falls here of giving a more probable estimate. The number of than in New-England or the Southern States; and large rivers which flow into the Missouri is so great, the atmosphere is much drier. Of the minerals and that we can enumerate only a small part of them. fossils already discovered, the principal are lead, coal, Yellow Stone, Platte, Osage, and Kansas, are noticed plaster, iron, manganese, zinc, antimony, cobalt, separately. The Chienne is considered navigable by various kinds of ochre, common salt, nitre, plumboats 800 miles; White river, 600; and several bago, porphyry, jasper, chalcedony, and marble. others are broad, deep streams, navigable for more Lead ore is dug in various parts of the state, but than a hundred miles. Through most of its course, there is a district extending nearly a hundred miles the Missouri is very rapid and turbid. The alluvial in length, and forty in width, which is particularly tract on its banks is narrower than that of the Missis- distinguished for its lead mines. The centre of the sippi. There are many settlements on the banks for part which has been most explored, is about seventy 400 miles from its mouth, and a few are found more miles south-west from St Louis, and about half as far than twice that distance. Beyond the state of Mis- from Herculaneum on the Mississippi. The French souri, the river and its branches have generally but dug lead from these mines 100 years ago. Somenarrow margins of fertile land. In many places, the what more than 3,000,000 pounds are annually prairies come even to their banks; and emigrants smelted, giving employment to about 1200 workpass onward, and leave such unpromising lands for men. Shot-towers are erected at Herculaneum and future generations. The Missouri is much longer other places, and great quantities of shot are exthan the Mississippi before their junction, and has a ported. The mine country is remarkable for its much greater volume of water. It is about half a salubrity, the fertility of its soil, and its beautiful mile wide at its mouth, but is wider for a great part streams. There is doubtless ore enough, of excelof its course.

lent quality, to supply the whole world with lead. MISSOURI, one the United States of America, The great river Missouri traverses this state. The is situated between 36° and 40° 30' N. latitude, and Osage is its principal southern branch, and will be between 88° 17' and 940 30' W. longitude. Its described separately. Several considerable rivers length is 270 miles, and its breadth 220, and it con- unite their waters with the Missouri on the northern tains 38 million acres; bounded north and west by side, and others with the Mississippi. The Maramec Missouri Territory; east and north-east by the Mis-runs through the mineral district, and enters the sissippi, which separates it from Illinois ; south-east Mississippi eighteen miles below St Louis. It is by the Mississippi, which separates it from Kentucky between 200 and 300 yards wide, and navigable by and Tennessee; south by Arkansas Territory. boats at some seasons 200 miles. Many of the small Population in 1820, 66,586, of whom 10,222 were rivers are dry a part of the summer. St Louis is slaves. Persons engaged in agriculture, 13,559; the commercial capital, and is the largest town of in manufactures, 1887 ; in commerce, 480. Popula- the United States west of the Mississippi. St Genetion in 1830, 140,074, of whom 24,990 were slaves. vieve, about one hundred miles west of the Missis The south-east part of the state has a very extensive sippi, and sixty-four below St Louis, is settled princitract of low marshy country, abounding in lakes, and pally by French. It has about 1500 inhabitants, liable to inundation. Back of this there is a region and considerable trade in lead. Jackson, the county of billy and mountainous country, extending to the town of Cape Girardeau county, is a thriving village. Osage. The best land in the state is north of the Potosi, in the mining district, is a considerable town. Missouri. This part contains large tracts of alluvial Herculaneum is the principal place of deposit for and hilly prairies, and is nowhere mountainous. the lead from the mines. New Madrid is, next to The soil here is excellent. It is less clayey and stiff Natchez, the most noted landing place for boats on than that of Ohio and Kentucky. There is also an the Mississippi. It suffered greatly from an earthimmense prairie commencing in the western part of quake in 1811. St Charles, about twenty miles the state, and extending far into the Missouri Terri-above St Louis, contains about 1200 inhabitants. tory. The soil of the upland prairies is far inferior Jefferson, a new town at the mouth of the Osage, to that of the alluvial prairies. The staple produc- is the present seat of government. Franklin, 150 tions have been wheat and Indian corn, during the miles by land above St Louis, is a considerable vilshort period that any part of Missouri has been culti-lage. The most numerous denominations of Chrisvated. Its soil will also produce the other kinds of tians in Missouri, are Methodists, Presbyterians, and grain in perfection, and also the various fruits which Catholics. Religious instruction and good schools grow in the states having the same latitude. Tobacco are less esteemed and less common in this new state thrives well, and cotton yields a tolerable crop. Flax than in most others in the Union. St Louis college, and hemp are likely to become largely cultivated. a Catholic institution, was founded in 1829. The colIndeed, many parts of this extensive state are likely lege building is a brick edifice, fifty feet by forty; but to rival the best tracts east of the Mississippi in the this is not sufficiently commodious, and preparations abundance of their productions. The prairies, being have been made for enlarging it. It is situated very entirely destitute of trees and shrubs, are ready for pleasantly in the neighbourhood of the city. It has a the plough; and there are such extensive tracts of president, six professors, and 125 students. Two this land in this state, which are admirably suited to other professors are about to be added. The library the growth of wheat, that many nations might here contains 1200 volumes. This institution is likely be supplied. In the spring, every prairie is a per- to become very useful to the state. Corporations fect flower garden, exceeding other gardens in extent I have been formed for nine academies. St Louis was

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3 founded in 1764; the principal inhabitants were from / appear like moving particles of dust. They are very Canada. This country was settled but slowly until it quick-sighted, and when once they have been touched was purchased by the United States; since that period, with a pin, it is curious to observe the cunning which immigration has almost annually increased. In 1820, they display to avoid a second touch. They are Missouri became an independent state, and it will, extremely voracious, and will even prey on each doubuless, become one of the most populous in the other, and are so tenacious of life that they have Union. For the constitution, see Constitutions of the been kept alive for many months between objectUnited States. A good description of Missouri, and glasses of a microscope. The species which is found of all the states of the Mississippi Valley, may be in meal occasions considerable injury. Leuwenhoek obtained from Flint's Geography, &c.

states that they may be expelled by placing a few nutMISSOCRI TERRITORY ; a tract of country megs in the vessel or sack containing the meal. A belonging to the United States, 900 miles long, German writer, named Funke, advises a cheaper and svo broad; bounded by the British possessions remedy, which consists of the decorticated, thick on the north; the North-West Territory, Illinois and branches of the lilac, or elder, which are to be put in Missouri on the east; the territories of the Mexican the flour, and will, it is said, completely prevent republic on the south and south-west ; and west by their depredations. See Tick. the Rocky mountains. The belt of land on the west MITE; a small coin, formerly current, equal to about border of the Mississippi, that is wooded, is generally one third of a farthing; it also denotes a small weight from two to four hundred miles broad. Then coin used by the moneyers. It is equal to the twentieth mence the immense prairies, which constitute so part of a grain, and divided into twenty-four doits. striking and impressive a feature in the vast coun- MITFORD, WILLIAM; an eminent historical and try that spreads westward to the Rocky moun philological writer, born in London, February 10, tains. For the most part, this country is a plain, 1734. He studied at Queen's college, Oxford, and more or less covered with grass, and in many then at the Middle Temple, but early quitted the places, fertile ; but other parts, of great extent, are profession of the law, and obtained a commission in the almost a moving sand. Countless numbers of buf. Southamptonshire militia, of which he became colonel. faloes, elks, and other wild animals, graze upon it. In 1785, he was chosen member of parliament, in which The principal sources of the Missouri, Arkansas, and he sat till 1818. His death took place in 1827. He Red river, are found in this territory, and several was professor of ancient history at the royal academy; large branches of the Mississippi, above the Missouri, and, besides his principal work, the History of Greece come from the north-western part of the same vast (1784–1810, 4 vols., 40; since reprinted in 8vo), he country. The Rocky mountains are yet but imper-published an Essay on the Harmony of Language fectly known. Their bases have generally an eleva-(1774,8vo); a Treatise on the Military Force, and tion of 3 or 4000 feet above the ocean, and some particularly the Militia of this kingdom (8v0); Obserof them are estimated at 12,000 feet in height. Fol. vations on the History of Christianity (8vo); a work lowing up the valleys of the sources of the Platte to on architecture, and another on the corn-laws. the opposite valleys of waters that flow west, a good MITHRA; the sun, or the genius of the sun, with road is found, easily passable with loaded wagons. the Persians, which was worshipped as a deity, at a Thus an easy communication is provided between the later period, also in Greece and Rome. Mithra navigable rivers of the Oregon territory, on the borders stands as a mediator between Ormuzd and the world. of the Pacific ocean, and those which flow into the gulf His symbols are the sun (of truth and justice) on his of Mexico. There are other ranges of mountains, head, the mace (power) in his hand, or the sacrificwhich traverse different parts of this territory, as the ing dagger, and the bull of the world, on whose back Black hills, the Ozark mountains, the Masserne, &c. he lies. He is not to be confounded with the Mitra, There are fertile belts of land on the margins of most or Anahid, the Persian Venus. Even in Germany, of the rivers, and some of them have a great extent of there are traces of his worship, in the provinces rich country. Generally, as we recede from the rivers, anciently under the dominion of the Romans. the soil becomes poor, and very extensive deserts are MITHRIDATES ; the name of several kings of found in the southern regions. There are very few set- Pontus, among whom Mithridates the Great, or the tlements of whites in this vast country, and none so VIth, was the most renowned. Ambition, cruelty, considerable as to have any established government. a spirit which nothing could bend, united with a At Council Bluffs there is a military post, having one powerful genius, were the characteristics which regiment of infantry. Many tribes of Indians still early developed themselves in his character. His possess extensive tracts. The Sioux are the most father was murdered B. C, 124, and Mithridates numerous ; the whole number is estimated at between ascended the throne at the age of thirteen years. 140.000 and 150,000.

His mother and instructor plotted against his life ; MISTLETOE. See Misletoe.

but he caused the former to be thrown into prison MITE. Several minute species of insects are (although she had been made co-regent with him), known under the name of mites, most of which, how where she died, according to some, of ill treatment, ever, belong to the genus acarus of Linnæus. The but according to others of poison. He hardened his most of these animals are very small, or almost body against exposure, and endeavoured to render microscopic. They occur everywhere, some being himself insensible to the effects of poison (whence the of a wandering character and to be found under name of a supposed antidote, Mithridate). When he stones, leaves, the bark of trees, or in provisions, as became of uge, he travelled through Asia, partly to meal, cheese, pepper, &c.; others are stationary and learn the customs, laws, manners, and languages of parasitie, on the skin of various animals, sometimes the inhabitants (and he is said to have spoken twentyproving of serious injury to them. It is even asserted, two languages), and partly to examine the territories and with great appearance of truth, that the itch is of his neighbours, of which he meditated the conowing to these animals. From the experiments of quest. After an absence of three years, he returned, several inquirers, it appears they not only have been and put to death his wife, who had been unfaithful, seen in the pustules of the itch, but also that they are and had attempted to poison him. He then attacked capable of giving it to a healthy individual by being Paphlagonia, and divided it with his ally, the king placed on his skin. This is, however, denied by of Bithynia. The Romans, who had declared the other and very high authority. The mites inhabiting country free, threatened him with a war; but Mithricheese are so minute that to the naked eye they dates was so little alarmed at this threat, that he

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even possessed himself of Galatia, which had placed sent his son Ariarathes, with a powerful army, into itself under the protection of Rome. He next Macedonia, which, with Thrace, was speedily condirected his attention to Cappadocia ; but, fearing quered. His arms were everywhere victorious, the power of Ariarathes, who was in possession of until, at length, the report that he threatened Italy this country, and his comnexion with the Romans, he itself, led the Romans to adopt more decisive meashad recourse to treachery, and caused him to be ures. Sylla embarked for Greece, reduced Athens assassinated. At the same time, Nicomedes, king by farine, destroyed the army of Archelaus in a of Bithynia, entered Cappadocia, drove out the son of bloody contest at Chæronea, and emancipated all the murdered king, and married Laodice, the widow Greece by two victories in Bæotia. Fimbria, with of Ariarathes and the sister of Mithridates. The no less success, reduced Asia Minor, and besieged latter then took the opportunity of re-entering Cap. Mithridates himself in the fortress of Pitane, who padocia, conquered it, and replaced his nephew on finally fled to his ships. The Pontic fleet was also the throne ; but he soon compelled the young prince, twice defeated by Lucullus. Thus pressed on every by his dishonourable requisitions, to a declaration of side, Mithridates commissioned Archelaus to conclude war. They marched against each other, with about a treaty, which Sylla granted, under severe condiequal forces. Mithridates then offered terms of tions, B. C. 89. Mithridates was limited to his peace, and invited the young prince to a conference, hereditary kingdom of Pontus, and compelled to in which he killed him with a dagger, in the sight deliver into the hands of the Romans eighty ships of of both armies. The Cappadocians, seeing their war manned, and to pay 2000 talents. Sylla bad master fall, were seized with terror, and Mithridates scarcely left Asia before Mithridates attacked Colpossessed himself of the country, almost without chis, and refused to fulfil the conditions of the peace. opposition. Nicomedes now concerted with his The Roman general, Muræna, who entered and wife the plan of suborning a young man to represent ravaged Pontus, was defeated, and many cities of the third son of Ariarathes, and caused him to send Asia had declared themselves for the victor, when to Rome to implore assistance. Laodice herself per- Aulus Gabinius, sent by the dictator Sylla, appeared. formed a journey to Rome, in order to confirm his Cappadocia was evacuated by Mithridates ; but, on story. Mithridates took advantage of this fraud to the other hand, he subdued the Bosphorians (B.C. endeavour to prove to the Romans that the young 82), and had no sooner heard of the death of Sylla prince to whom he had given up Cappadocia (who (B. C. 78), than he determined to recover the counwas his own son, to whom he had given the name of tries he had ceded, and, in order to distract the Ariarathes) was the real son of Ariarathes. The Romans, entered into a treaty with Sertorius, the Romans, having discovered this double fraud, took chief of the Marian faction in Spain. His son-in-law Cappadocia from Mithridates, and Paphlagonia from Tigranes, king of Armenia, entered into his designs, Nicomedes; and the Cappadocians elected Ariobar- and marched to Cappadocia, while Mithridates himzanes their king. Scarcely had Sylla, whose arms self, after the subjugation of Paphlagonia, conquered had elevated the latter to the throne, left Asia, when Bithynia and the provinces of Asia. A new war Mithridates, with the assistance of Tigranes, king with Rome was now unavoidable. The consuls of Armenia, replaced his son upon the Cappadocian Lucullus and Cotta went against Mithridates, the throne. He also, at the same time, took Bithynia, latter as commander of the feet, and the former as and gave that country to his brother Socrates Chris- general of the land forces. Cotta was unsuccessful; tos. The Romans, however, soon restored things to Lucullus, on the contrary, cautiously avoided a gentheir former condition. Mithridates then declared eral engagement with the superior forces of the himself against the Romans, and, because they would enemy, but at the same time gained so many impornot acquiesce in his demands, he suddenly fell upon tant advantages, by sea and land, that he soon entered Cappadocia and Bithynia at the same time. His Pontus as a conqueror. While he was besieging forces amounted to 250,000 foot, 50,000 horse, 130 Amisus, Mithridates collected an army, and gained chariots armed with scythes, and 400 ships. Those a decided victory; yet Lucullus succeeded in regainof the Romans, with the Bithynian auxiliaries, were ing what he had lost, and Mithridates found himself not much inferior, and were commanded by Cassins, compelled, by the revolt of his own troops, to fly to Aquilius, and Oppius. Mithridates was successful at Tigranes, in Armenia, who received him, but did the opening of the war. He not only defeated not make common cause with him. Lucullus, who Nicomedes, but also Aquilius, conquered Bithynia, had, in the mean time, transformed Pontus into a and captured a great part of the Roman feet. Roman province, demanded the surrender of MithriPhrygia, Caria, Mysia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Paphla- dates, which Tigranes refused, because, as he said, gonia, and all the country as far as Ionia, fell into although he disapproved the conduct of Mithridates, his hands, and hailed him as the saviour of Asia. he nevertheless esteemed it dishonourable to deliver The Roman generals Oppius and Aquilius were also up so near a connexion to his enemies ; but, as he given up to him as prisoners by the inhabitants of foresaw that the Romans would not be contented Laodicea and Lesbos; and he caused melted gold to with this answer, he agreed with Mithridates that he be poured down the throat of the latter, in derision should return to Pontus with 10,000 men, collect an of the avarice of the Romans. The free cities of army, and return with it before Lucullus, who was Asia, Magnesia, Mitylene, Ephesus, &c., opened their besieging Sinope, should come into Armenia. Sinope, gates to the victor, who collected treasure sufficient however, surrendered sooner than they expected, to maintain his army five years. He caused all the and Lucullus defeated Tigranes before his junction Roman citizens in Asia Minor, with their wives and with Mithridates. Tigranes, nevertheless, collected children, to be put to death. Dionysius and Plutarch a new army, which Mithridates led into Pontus. give the number of those who perished at 150,000; Lucullus, however, checked his progress by a vicAppian at 80,000. Mithridates next conquered tory; but, during the winter, Mithridates strengththe islands of the Ægean sea. Rhodes, however, ened his forces, and soon entirely defeated the held out so firmly that he returned to Pergamus. From lieutenants of Lucullus, and then directed his march hence he sent his general Archelaus, with 120,000 towards Armenia Minor, to form a junction with men, to Greece. Athens fell by treachery into his Tigranes. In the mean time, the consul Manius hands, and various other places were taken, while Acilius Glabrio had taken the chief command, in the another of his generals, Metrophanes, ravaged Eubæa. place of Lucullus. The allied kings took advantage On the news of the defeat of the latter, Mithridates l of the confusion incidental to this change, and

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reconquered the greatest part of Pontus, Bithynia, this head-dress on a gem published by Natter, and Cappadocia, and Armenia Minor. Pompey then subsequently by Winckelmann, in his Monumenti appeared at the head of the Roman army. After Inediti (No. 112). Priam, and the Amazons, upon he had in vain offered him peace, and sought a the Homeric monuments, and the Parthian kings, decisive battle, he besieged Mithridates in his upon several medals, have a similar mitre. The camp, pot far from the Euphrates. The king mitre is very frequently met with in early Christian thence retreated, but was pursued, attacked in a manuscripts, in illuminated missals, and upon the defile, and totally routed at Nicopolis (B. C. 66); oldest ecclesiastical monuments; this, however, might he escaped with only 800 horse. "Tigranes would be expected, since its usage has always been principot receive him, and he fled to Colchis. Pompey pally ecclesiastical. A statue of St Peter, erected in followed him, and he took refuge in the dominions of the seventh century, bears this mark of distinction, in a Scythian prince. He was now thought to be dead, the shape of a round, high, and pyramidal mitre, such until he suddenly reappeared in Pontus, collected as those worn by each of the popes since. Perhaps this troops, and, at the same time, offered terms of peace statue offers one of the earliest instances of its usage to Pompey; they could not, however, agree, and the in the Christian churches. See Infula, and Tiura. var broke out afresh. The force of the Romans in MITTAU (in Lettonian, Jelgava); a city of Russia; Pontus was small, and Mithridates made some pro chief city of the government of Mittau (see Courland), gress. The inhabitants, however, soon revolted from lat. 56° 39' N.; lon. 23° 43' E. It is situated in a hiin, and his neighbours refused him their assistance; low and marshy country, about nine leagues from Devertheless, his unbending spirit rejected the pro- Riga. The population is 12,000, composed of Rusposals of peace made by Pompey. He put to death sians, Germans, Lettonians, and Jews. The old ramhis son Machares, made himself king in Bosphorus, parts have been destroyed. It contains mumerous and formed the bold project of penetrating into Gaul charitable and literary institutions. The old castle, (where he had sent ambassadors) at the head of his founded by the duke Ernest John, was occupied by army, and marching, with the inhabitants, into Italy; Louis XVIII. for several years. Mittau, the ancient but, having encamped at the Cimmerian Bosphorus, residence of the dukes of Courland, was captured by an insurrection broke out in his army, at the head of the Swedes in 1701, and recovered by the Russians which was his son Pharnazes. Unable to reduce the in 1706. rebels to their duty, and having taken poison without MITTIMUS; a writ by which records are transetfect, Mithridates threw himself upon his sword, that ferred from one court to another.

The precept he might not fall alive into the hands of the Romans directed to a gaoler, under the hand and seal of a (B. C. 64.) This celebrated monarch ruled Pontus justice of the peace, for the receiving and safe keepsity-nine years.

ing of a felon, or other offender, by hiin committed MITHŘIDATES; the title given to the Allge- to gaol, is also called a mittimus. meine Sprachenkunde of Adelung and Vater, in MIZZEN; the aftermost or hindermost of the fixed which the Lord's prayer is exhibited in nearly five sails of a ship. hundred languages and dialects. See Vater.

MIZZEN MAST ; the mast which supports all the MITRA; a head-dress of the ancient Persian after sails. See Ship. kings. See Infula.

MNEMONICS (from the Greek pon u ovsuw, to reHitra ; the ancient Persian goddess of love. member); the art of assisting the memory. In the

MITRE (Greek hitpa), in costume; a sacerdotal article Msemory, the liveliness with which ideas are ornament, worn on the head by bishops and certain often recalled by accidental associations, has been abbots on solemn occasions, being a sort of cap, spoken of. This very naturally led men to attach pointed and cleft at top. The high priest among ideas, words, &c., purposely, to certain things familiar the Jews wore a mitre, or bonnet, on his head. The to the mind, in order to be assisted by the latter in reinferior priests of that nation bad likewise their mitres, membering the former. One kind of mnemonics, and but in what particulars they differed from that worn perhaps the earliest, is to attach the idea to be rememby the high priest, is not now certain. Some writers bered to some impression of the senses, such as the contend that the earlier bishops wore mitres; but this external objects which are most familiar to our eyes circumstance is also enveloped in a good deal of (topology, from Fotos, place): some persons make doubt. Among the primitive followers of Christianity, use of a picture, arbitrarily drawn, to which they there was a class of young women who professed a attach the subjects to be remembered, in a certain state of virginity, and were solemnly consecrated order (symbolics, from our bodov, mark); others make thereto. These wore a purple and golden mitre, as use of numbers. There are certain natural aids to a badge of distinction. His holiness the pope uses the memory, which we all employ ; for instance, if four ditierent mitres, which are more or less rich, we put a piece of paper in a conspicuous spot of our adorned according to the nature of the festivals on room, or make a knot in a handkerchief, in order to which they are assumed. The cardinals formerly be reminded of certain things at particular times. wore mitres, and some canons of cathedrals in Roman As to topology, an orator who intends to deliver a Catholic countries have the privilege of wearing the long speech without notes, may derive assistance mitre, which is also borne by several families of dis- from previously entering the room where he is to tinction in Germany as their crest. But we must speak, and attaching in his mind to certain prominent look back into remoter ages, in order to find the objects in the room the chief heads of his speech. origin of the use of the mitre. It would seem to have To remember dates, several methods have been deolnained primarily in India. According to several vised. The one proposed in Gray's Memoria Techauthors, it was first a part of female costume, and nicu is to make certain changes in the names of when worn by a man was considered as indicative of persons, places, &c., in such a way that the words efieminacy, The fillet, with which Bacchus is often shall signify also certain numbers, according to a represented as having his head bound, has been de plan previously adopted. A table must be drawn pominated mitrephora. A peculiar kind of head- up, similar to the following :dress, covering the whole head, is often found


oi ei depicted on ancient coins, &c., with pendents, or

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7 pointed dewlaps, by means of which, perhaps, this

6 d kind of mitre was tied under the chin. This was

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k probably the Phrygiar mitre ; for we find Paris with | If we now wish to impress in our memory that Julius




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Cæsar arrived at the supreme power 46 B.C., we | mere force of memory, to perform arithmetical operamay change the Julius into Julios, which will be tions, as multiplication, division, extraction of roots, easily remembered whenever we think of Julius, &c., to forty places. It is said of Magliabecchi, that and os signifies, according to the above plan, 46. a gentleman, having lent him a manuscript which he If we wish to remember that Alexander the Great was going to print, came to him soon after it was founded his empire 331 B. C., we change Alcxander returned, and, pretending that he had lost it, desired into Alexita, ita signifying 331, according to the him to repeat as much of it as he could; on which above. In the same way Cyrus, changed into Cy- Magliabecchi wrote down the whole, without missing ruts, gives the year of the foundation of his great a word or varying the spelling. empire. This method may much facilitate the re- MNEMOSYNĚ (Greek, Memory), in the Grecian taining of facts to a certain extent; but it would mythology ; daughter of Uranus (Cælus, Heaven), seem as if the changes themselves might become too and Gaia (Terra, Earth), and by Jupiter the mother numerous to be easily remembered.

of the nine Muses. (q. v.) Systems of mnemonics of a more general character Mo signifies tribe, nation, in many idioms of have been proposed ; few, however, or none, have Southern Africa. remained in vogue for any length of time. Generally MOAB ; the land of the Moabites, an Arabian speaking, mnemonics ought to be individual ; each tribe, dwelling in the mountainous region east of the individual ought to find out that method of assisting Dead sea, from Zoar to the river Arnon, between the his memory which is most convenient to himself; and Midianites, Edomites, and Amorites. According to this will vary, of course, with his habitual associa- the Mosaic account (Gen. xix. 30), the Moabites tions. The only true basis of a philosophic memory, were descended from Moab, the son of Lot by his however, is just classification. (See Memory.) Con- eldest daughter. In the time of the judges, they were siderable aid to the memory may be derived from for eighteen years masters of the Hebrews, but in the use of rhymes, or a rhythmical arrangement of the time of David, were rendered tributaries to them. words. Remote antiquity made use of rhythm to After the Babylonish captivity, they lost their separpreserve the memory of historical facts before the ate national existence. Their principal leaders meninvention of writing. The ancients were well ac- tioned in scripture, are Balak and Eglon; their idols quainted with mnemonics; according to some, the were Peor and Chemosh. science came from the east to the Greeks; others MOALLAKAT (i. e. the hung up); seven Araconsider the poet Simonides as the inventor of them; bian poems of the time immediately preceding Mobut such inventions cannot be properly assigned to hammed, which, on account of their excellence, were any particular individual. In the time of Cicero it suspended in public, on the temple at Mecca.

An was known among the Romans (see Cicero De | English translation with arguments, and the Arabic Oratorc ii. 86 et seq.; Auct. ad Herenn. iii. 16 text, was published by Sir W. Jones (London, 1783.) seq.; Quinctil. x, 1, 11 seq. After Quinctilian's See Arabian Literature. tine, mnemonics again declined. In considering MOAT, or DITCH, in fortification, a deep trench the use of mnemonics by the ancient orators, we dug round the rampart of a fortified place, to prevent should remember that they delivered long orations surprises. The brink of the moat next the rampart, indeed, but had nothing like our debates, in which a is called the scarp; and the opposite one, the countermember of a deliberative body sometimes rises, and scarp. A dry moat round a large place, with a strong speaks for hours in succession, recapitulating all garrison, is preferable to one full of water ; because which has been said before him on the question, and the passage may be disputed inch by inch, and the therefore, to a considerable degree, without premed- besiegers, when lodged in it, are continually exposed itation. Most of the systems of mnemonics devised to the bombs, grenades, and other fire-works, which for the ancients, would be useless for a parliamentary are thrown incessantly from the rampart into their orator of the present day. In the place of the works. In the middle of dry moats, there is someancient mnemonics, the schoolmen used the tabellary | times another small one called lunette, which is genmethod. Conrad Celtes, in the ffteenth century, and erally dug till the water fills it. The deepest and Schenkel, in the sixteenth, re-established the ancient broadest moats are accounted the best ; but a deep system. In modern times, several scholars have one is preferable to a broad one; the ordinary given much attention to this subject. Some of the breadth is about twenty fathoms, and the depth about best works are Kastner's Mnemonik, oder die Gedächt- sixteen. To drain a moat that is full of water, a nisskunst der Alten (Leipsic, 1805); Systematische trench is dug deeper than the level of the water, to Anlcitung zur Theorie und Praxis der Mnemonik, by let it run off, and then hurdles are thrown upon the Aretin (Sulzbach, 1810); Feinagle's New Art of Me- mud and slime, covered with earth or bundles of mory, to which is prefixed some Account of the Prin- rushes, to make a sure and firm passage. cipal Systems of Artificial Memory (London, 1812); MOBILE; a city, port of entry, and capital of Gray's Memoria Technica (1730). The degree to Mobile county, Alabama, on the west side of Mowhich the power of memory has been sometimes car-bile river, at its entrance into the bay. It is thirty ried, is almost incredible. Thus Seneca states, that, by miles north of Mobile point, which is on the east the mere effort of his natural memory, he was able to side of the mouth of the bay; fifty-five miles west by repeat 2000 words upon once liearing them, each in its north from Pensacola ; and 160 east from New Ororder, though they had no dependence or connexion on leans ; lat. 30° 40' N.; lon. 88° 21' w. In 1813, each other. He also mentions Cyneas, ambassador to this town came into the possession of the United the Romans from king Pyrrhus, who in one day so well States, and then contained about 300 inhabitants. learned the names of the people whom he saw, that In 1822, its population was estimated at 2800; and the next day he saluted all the senators, and all of the in 1830, it contained 3194.—Mobile is situated conpopulace assembled, each by his proper name. Pliny siderably above the overflow of the river, in a dry says that Cyrus knew every soldier in his army by and pleasant place; but access to the city is rendered name, and L. Scipio all the people of Rome. Char- somewhat difficult by a swampy island opposite. It mipas, or rather Carneades, when required, it is said, has, moreover, swampy lands and stagnant waters would repeat any volume found in the libraries as back of it; and near it is a sterile country of pine readily as if he were reading. Doctor Wallis tells woods. The city has several times been ravaged by us, that, without the assistance of pen and ink, or any the yellow fever, and has once been almost wholly thing equivalent, he was able in the dark, by the destroyed by fire. Advantage was taken of the

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