Inter-university Program of Research on Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor: Phase I Report
National Science Foundation, 1973 - Ferromanganese - 358 pages
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activity analysis appears associated average bands bottom carbonate changes chemical clay coastal composition concentrations consisted contained continental core crust deep deep-sea deposits depth determined distribution dredge effects elements environment exploration ferromanganese ferromanganese nodules Figure floor flow grains Green growth important increased indicated infrared interest iron layer less limited major manganese nodules marine material measured ment metals methods Michigan mineral mining natural needs North observed obtained occur Ocean operations organic oxide Pacific Pacific Ocean pattern phases position possible present processes productivity range region relatively represent rock salinity samples seawater sediment Shelf shown silicate similar South spectra station structure studies suggest surface survey Table techniques temperature thickness tion types United values variations X-ray zone
Page 349 - For the purpose of these articles, the term "continental shelf" is used as referring (a) to the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast but outside the area of the territorial sea, to a depth of 200 metres or, beyond that limit, to where the depth of the superjacent waters admits of the exploitation of the natural resources of the said areas; (b) to the seabed and subsoil of similar submarine areas adjacent to the coasts of islands.
Page 346 - America with respect to the natural resources of the subsoil and seabed of the continental shelf. Having concern for the urgency of conserving and prudently utilizing its natural resources, the Government of the United States regards the natural resources of the subsoil and seabed of the continental shelf beneath the high seas but contiguous to the coasts of the United States as appertaining to the United States, subject to its jurisdiction and control ..." United Nations Treaty Series, vol.
Page 346 - WHEREAS it is the view of the Government of the United States that the exercise of jurisdiction over the natural resources of the subsoil and sea bed of the continental shelf by the contiguous nation is reasonable and just...
Page 349 - The coastal State exercises over the continental shelf sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring it and exploiting its natural resources.
Page 349 - Subject to its right to take reasonable measures for the exploration of the continental shelf and the exploitation of its natural resources, the coastal State may not impede the laying or maintenance of submarine cables or pipelines on the continental shelf.
Page 349 - The exploration of the continental shelf and the exploitation of its natural resources must not result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation, fishing or the conservation of the living resources of the sea, nor result in any interference with fundamental oceanographic or other scientific research carried out with the intention of open publication.
Page 349 - State over the continental shelf do not depend on occupation, effective or notional, or on any express proclamation. 4. The natural resources referred to in this Part consist of the mineral and other non-living resources of the sea-bed and subsoil together with living organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvestable stage, either are immobile on or under the sea-bed or are unable to move except in constant physical...
Page 345 - outer Continental Shelf" means all submerged lands lying seaward and outside of the area of lands beneath navigable waters...
Page 349 - The natural resources referred to in these articles consist of the mineral and other non-living resources of the seabed and subsoil together with living organisms belonging to sedentary species, that is to say, organisms which, at the harvestable stage, either are immobile on or under the seabed or are unable to move except in constant physical contact with the seabed or the subsoil.
Page 349 - Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 6 of this article, the coastal State is entitled to construct and maintain or operate on the continental shelf installations and other devices necessary for its exploration and the exploitation of its natural resources...