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LETTER XIV.
GUNGOOTRA, THE 27TH POUSE

Krishen Churn Gooroo Ram Chunder. . The progressive knowledge which your letters display, and the taste you already evince for the investigation of truth, and those correct notions of_right and wrong, which have their foundation only in the Christian Religion, convince me, that you will at length fully adopt the tenets of that faith, and abandon those erroneous principles, which you admit even now that you adhere to more from the reverence, which their antiquity inspires, than from the conviction of their intrinsic truth and authenticity. That such an improved knowledge of things begins to force itself on your understanding, I have the more reason to be glad, as I'am inclined to think, that the pains I have taken to inculcate in your mind an early love of truth, and an acquaintance with the fun. damental principles of reason, have been chiefly instrumental in forining

it.

In your last letter, however, I observe you very erroneously set forth the pre-eminence of the Shasters, in providing such various rules for all the daily occupations of life, which are not to be found in the Christian code. On further reflexion you will find this very circumstance affords an important proof of their imperfection. For all these maxims it may be observed, which pretend to guide the conduct of indi. viduals, enjoin only a superficial observance of ceremonies, without reference to the principle, from which our actions proceed, differing in this respect from the precepts of Christianity, that the former are like the artificial wires and springs, by which the limbs and other mechanical powers of the body may be made to perform - certain actions, the latter like the vital warmth, which penetrates the whole system, and reaches to the heart, gives life and energy and volition to every part of the frame.

It is the character of that enlightened religion, by which Christians guide their conduct, not to lay down laws for the minute observances of life, but to form the disposition, and give a right direction to the heart. It considers man as nature confesses him to be, a free moral agent, and in that character rather aims to direct the motives, which give impulse to his actions, than to cramp or impede by a detailed and partial law,. what all nature has declared to be free, and at our own disposal.

It is its purpose to frame and modify the heart, but to leave the iša sne to our own will. It acts therefore, by general, and not by circum. stantial, laws. It considers the diversity of the human race, scattered over the earth, with the variety of climate, of dispositions, of cast, of manners, and Government; the various aspect hence displayed in the peculiar character of each nation, and the distinct classes of men in each. individual society. Led by such an extensive view of man, the divine author of nature foresaw, what no mortal legislator could ever do. Ha foresaw that no code of laws could possibly be framed, applicable to go many and such various wants; that one only possession, or principle was common to all mankind, derived from the same essence, and partaking of the same attributes. - This therefore it was his design to mould, and for the Government of this and this alone, laws where to be prescribed. The Christian

therefore was the first, the sole religion, which directed its laws to the thoughts of the heart.

This then is the characteristic excellence of the morality of the Gospel. This is the peculiar feature, which so remarkably points out its divine origin, and confesses it to be the work of uncreated wisdom, and not the work of man. Other systems of religion may be well adapted to any particular country, but this alone is applicable to all mankind alike. In every other system you may trace the local cir. cumstances, under which it arose, and its partial application to the coun try which gave it birth. When the votary of Mahomet declared it to be the will of his God, that no man should taste food from the rising of the sun to its setting, “How,” exclaimed an inhabitant of Kamschatka, who stood by,“ how is this precept to be obeyed in my country * where for three months in the year the sun never sets at all?»* The same principle, in a more extended view, has been traced hy a learned phi

losopher of Europet who points out in almost every part of the globe, where Christianity has not yet reached, the local circumstances under which each system of laws and religion is peculiarly fitted to the countries, where they are found to exist.

For this purpose he shews, that the privileges of polygamy under · the Mussulman law, are naturally calculated to the countries where it preyails - that the laws against drinking wine are equally appropriate in a climate, where its excess is so dangerous. In China also we find a Religious custom of the Head of the Empire, superintending in person the annual opening of the ground, a custom, which affords a powerful encouragement to agriculture in a nation, which principally depends on it for their livelihood. And in this country where pasture is so much dried up by the sun, and a supply of cattle is so indispensably necessary for the cultivation of the soil, we find one of the oldest and most powerful obligations of religion is, that which prevents the slaughter of them. • These and many other instances, where the religious observances of the people so peculiarly accommodate themselves to the nature of the soil or climate, though the learned author himself has not deduced the conclusion, appear to me to afford an unanswerable argument of the falsity of every such system, where the object in view so plainly be speaks the origin, from which it sprung.

It is the glory of the Christian religion, that it accords itself with every complexion, and every variety of the human race-it is equally applicable to every condition of Society, to the domestic duties of the humblest peasant, and to the laws and government of a mighty empire. It is restricted to no one soil or climate, and depends not on human sanction for its support. It speaks to the conscience of mankind, and resigns to that universal monitor the freedom of thought, which can alone constitute the reality of good and bad in human actions.

It is by thus comparing the spirit of Christianity with the actual state of human nature in its widest aspect, that you will obtain a full persuasion of its truth, aud certainty. Because the further you carry the study, the more instances you will see of their remarkable uniformity; and such a concurrence of a system of faith with the natural go. vernment of the world is, as you rightly observe, our only certain cri. terion for the correctness of our belief.

* Volney's Ruins of Empires,
† Montesquieu.

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

PHYSICAL COMMITTEE

“The Barometer is in general ob

served with more accuracy than OF THE

other instruments, and commonly ASIATIC SOCIETY.

at such times as embrace periods of

- its maximum and minimum elevaApril, 27th, 1825. tion: not so, however, the Ther

mometer 'which is affected by variH. H. Wilson Esq. in the Chair.

ous localities, and is seldom attended to at all the moments necessary

to furnish a fair estimate of its mean At this meeting which was nume nously attended, the following com

indication for the twenty four hours. mimications were read and contri The occasional heights of the butions received. A letter from Co- Barometer and Thermometer after lonel Blacker transmitting copies of sunset have no correspondence with the meteorological Journal register- any particular period. They were ed in the Surveyor General's Office taken with reference to simnltanefor November, December and Ja- ous Astronomical Observations, nuary 1824, 25.

and therefore belong to the RegisThe diary for preceding months ter. In like manner the Baromenot having been kept with equal trical heights at sunrise and sunset regularity were not transmitted, but are unconnected with any period. it was stated by Colonel B. that it since the times of those phenomena is always accessible to reference change daily ; but as those variable whenever required for the propose's times are materially connected with of the Committee. Col. Blacker. the question of temperature, the also remarks that the portion of the Thermometer was observed accordJournal embracing the observations ingly, and the Barometrical height now submitted is defective “partly is attached to it as a natural accomfrom the want of proper instruments, paniment. and partly from'an incomplete sys- “The Ombrometer is likewise aftem of observation” In reference fected considerably by local circumto this subject and in illustration of stances. Near the ground it is difthe table which will be formed at ficult to find a situation among nuthe end of our Literary and Scien- merous houses and high enclosures, tific Intelligence Col. Blackor fur where there is not some partial imther states,

pediment to the free descent of

the rain; whether from eddies or The Secretary to the Committee skreens; whilst on the terrace of a presented in the name of Capt. C. high building, the quantity is known E. Davis a very interesting abstract to be less than at the basement, if of a Register of the Barometer and the fall be not intercepted by ac- thermometer kept at Singapore diis cidental causes.

ring 1820, 21, 22, 23, and 24. The

Tables which form this abstract are « The ordinary terms employed

inserted at the end of the present. for describing the state of the Atmos

article. phere are wanting in precisiou, so as to convey no comparable informa Dr. Abel submitted some metetion. A nomenclature of the Clouds reological observations kept by him is therefore necessary, for occasion, during a voyage from Madeira to when the Sky is at all overcast;

Rio Janeiro, and which embrace the and the opposite clearness of the rise of the Barometer, Thermome. air requires some conventional scale ter and Daniel's Hygrometer.- He for its expression.

also presented to the Committee.

The following Queries and Agenda, “ These remarks especially ap- on some of the most interesting ply to the three months Journal points of Meteorological Enquiry. now forwarded, which include the these were drawn up by Mr. Daniel state of the Barometer, Thermome- the distinguished meteorologist of ter, Ombrometer, and general as- England, and furnished to Dr. A. on pect only; but there are many his visiting India, in the hope of other points which remain to be re- eliciting information respecting the gistered with precision. The wind Atmsopherical Phenomena of the requires the language of numbers East. for the expression of its strength, whenever the same shall be so great as to be sensibly connected with METEOROLOGICAL QUERIES AND other phenomena. The moisture or opposite dryness of the atmos

AGENDA: phere is one of the most interesting 1.-Mean temperature of the circumstances of Meteorology; yet Air? to be calculated from the few of the instruments which have maximum and minimum of the been invented for its indication 24 hours taken by a Register Ther. have given satisfaction. Much de- mometer in the shade. pends on the practice of the obser- 2-The temperature of the Sea ver, which unless it be particularly

and other deep reservoirs ? It's described, imposses a character of

changes as connected with the alindividuality on the results.

titude of the Sun ? The times of “A Wind-gauge or Anemometer,

its maximum and minimum ? Obas also a Hygrometer and Photome

servations of these points contemter, have been recently acquired. poraneous with those of the Hyand are you now in use with more grometer would be very interesting or less effect. The observations as connected with the subject of depending on them will appear in evaporation and the grand supply my next communication, when I of Atmospheric vapour. shall take an opportunity of de- 3.-The amount of temperature scribing them with more particula- denoted by a Register Thermome. rity than is now necessary. The ter, having its bulb covered with same occasion will be used for giv- black wool, and placed with a full ing further information regarding exposure to the Sun's rays ? A the remaining instruments and their comparison of the force of radialocal circumstances."

tion from the Sun on mountains

and plains is very desirable. These Thermometer having its bulb co. observations would be interesting vered with a small ball of damp to the subject of vegitation, and sponge may be used for this ob. are likewise connected with evapo- servation. ration from the surface of the 8.-The mean pressure of the earth.

Atmosphere taken by the Barome. 4.- Any observations tending to ter? Are semi-diurnal variations shew the gradual increase of the particularly perceptible in the Tor. force of radiation from the Sun, rid Zone ? Does the Barometer from its rising to the Meridian and generally fall from 10 o'Clock A. M. its decrease from the Meridian to till 4 P. M. then rise again till 10 its setting. In default of better P. M. again drop till 4 A. M. and means hourly observations of the mount till 10 A. M. ? Thermometer with the black wool 9.- Are such oscillations more on a clear calm day would be observable at Sea than on shore ! useful. 5.- The depression of a Regis.

10.-The Dew-point of the At. ter Thermometer, likewise covered mosphere, by

od mosphere by the Hygrometer at with black wool fully exposed at regular intervals ? pight to the aspect of the sky? A The proper periods of perform comparison of the same on moun- ing the experiment it is not so easy tains and plains. These observa- to determine. There can however tions are likewise connected with be little doubt that the fluctuations vegetation, and would probably follow the progress of the mean throw much light upon the forma. temperature: and if so the Maxition of Dew, Mists, &c.

mum quantity of vapour will be A series of experiments continu- found about two hours after the ed for a length of time in any Sun has passed the Meridian and situation, will by the balance of the minimun an hour before Sunaccidental circumstances afford a rise. In high northern latitudes it near approximation to the amount generally happens that the miniof heat received from the direct mun temperature and the point of rays of the Sun during the day, condensation coincide so that one and given by radiation from the observation about two o'clock P. M. earth at night.

combined with the lowest indica6.-How many grains in weight

tion of a register Thermometer

would probably give a near apwill a piece of Cotton gain, exposing as nearly as possible à flat proximation to the mean quantity circular surface of two inches dia

' of vapour and the mean degree of meter, laid upon grass or other dress. short vegetable substance during 11.- Is there any difference in a clear, calm night from Sun-set the points of deposition in the Land to Sun-rise ?

and Sea breezes ? The dew point by the Hygrome In other periodical Winds ? ter, the lowest temperature of the In Forests? In Marshes ? Radiating Thermometer and the In Sandy plains ? lowest temperature of the air should 12.-The temperature of Deep at the same time be registered. Wells? Springs ? and Caverns.

This observation should be re. 13.-There appear to be two peated at intervals in favourable principal objects to be ascertained circumstances.

by the examination of the state of 7.-The temperature of Rain as Atmopheric vapour at it falls, and its difference from the 14.-Great altitudes. The first temperature of the air? A delicate is, in an unclouded, calm, state of

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