## Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical StudyMathematics and the Divine seem to correspond to diametrically opposed tendencies of the human mind. Does the mathematician not seek what is precisely defined, and do the objects intended by the mystic and the theologian not lie beyond definition? Is mathematics not Man's search for a measure, and isn’t the Divine that which is immeasurable ? The present book shows that the domains of mathematics and the Divine, which may seem so radically separated, have throughout history and across cultures, proved to be intimately related. Religious activities such as the building of temples, the telling of ritual stories or the drawing of enigmatic figures all display distinct mathematical features. Major philosophical systems dealing with the Absolute and theological speculations focussing on our knowledge of the Ultimate have been based on or inspired by mathematics. A series of chapters by an international team of experts highlighting key figures, schools and trains of thought is presented here. Chinese number mysticism, the views of Pythagoras and Plato and their followers, Nicholas of Cusa's theological geometry, Spinozism and intuitionism as a philosophy of mathematics are treated side by side among many other themes in an attempt at creating a global view on the relation of mathematics and Man’s quest for the Absolute in the course of history. · Mathematics and man's quest for the Absolute · A selective history highlighting key figures, schools and trains of thought · An international team of historians presenting specific new findings as well as general overviews · Confronting and uniting otherwise compartmentalized information |

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### Contents

45 | |

61 | |

CHAPTER 3
The Pythagoreans | 77 |

CHAPTER 4
Mathematics and the Divine in Plato | 99 |

CHAPTER 5
Nicomachus of Gerasa and the Arithmetic Scale of the Divine | 123 |

CHAPTER 6
Geometry and the Divine in Proclus | 133 |

CHAPTER 7
Religious Architecture and Mathematics During the Late Antiquity | 147 |

CHAPTER 8
The Sacred Geography of Islam | 161 |

CHAPTER 20
The Mathematical Analogy in the Proof of Gods Existence by Descartes | 385 |

CHAPTER 21
Pascals Views on Mathematics and the Divine | 405 |

CHAPTER 22
Spinoza and the Geometrical Way of Proof | 423 |

Mathematician and Divine | 441 |

CHAPTER 24
An Ocean of Truth | 459 |

CHAPTER 25
God and Mathematics in Leibnizs Thought | 485 |

CHAPTER 26 Berkeleys Defence of the Infinite God in Contrast to the Infinite in Mathematics | 499 |

CHAPTER 27 Leonhard Euler 17071783 | 509 |

CHAPTER 9 Number Mystique in Early Medieval Computus Texts | 179 |

CHAPTER 10
Is the Universe of the Divine Dividable? | 201 |

Ramon Lull | 213 |

CHAPTER 12
Odd Numbers and their Theological Potential Exploring and Redescribing the Arithmetical Poetics of the Paintings on the Ceiling of St... | 229 |

Angels God and Mathematics in the Fourteenth Century | 249 |

CHAPTER 14
Mathematics and the Divine in Nicholas of Cusa | 273 |

CHAPTER 15
Michael Stifel and his Numerology | 291 |

CHAPTER 16 Between Rosicrucians and CabbalaJohannes Faulhabers Mathematics of Biblical Numbers | 311 |

Athanasius Kircher | 331 |

CHAPTER 18
Galileo God and Mathematics | 347 |

CHAPTER 19
The Mathematical Model of Creation According to Kepler | 361 |

Colour Figures | 375 |

CHAPTER 28 Georg Cantor 18451918 | 523 |

CHAPTER 29
Gerrit Mannoury and his Fellow Significians on Mathematics and Mysticism | 549 |

A Comparison | 569 |

Priest Pavel FlorenskyTheologian Philosopher and Scientist | 595 |

A Sceptical Experience | 613 |

CHAPTER 33
Symbol and Space According to René Guénon | 625 |

CHAPTER 34
Eddington Science and the Unseen World | 641 |

CHAPTER 35
The Divined Proportion | 655 |

Author Index | 673 |

683 | |

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according analogy angels Archytas argument Aristotle arithmetic astronomy biblical body Brouwer calculation Cambridge Cantor centre century Chapter Christian church circle computus conception creation Descartes developed divine earth Eddington elements essence eternal Euclid Euler example Eyn-sof Faulhaber figures finite Florensky Galileo geometry Georg Cantor Gerrit Mannoury Greek Gregory of Rimini Guénon harmony heaven Hobbes human Husserl idea infinite infinity intellectual interpretation Kepler Kircher knowledge Koetsier L.E.J. Brouwer Leibniz letter logic magic square Mannoury math mathematical sciences mathematician means medieval metaphysics mind mysticism Newton Nicholas of Cusa numerology objects Paris Pascal Philolaus philosophy physical Plato Plotinus possible Principia principle problem Proclus proof proportion Pythagoras Pythagoreans qibla quod rational reality reason References religion religious role scientific sefirot sense soul space Spinoza spirit Stifel symbolism theology theory things thought Timaeus tradition transl triangle truth understanding unity universe Wallis