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Mr. Floop. To whom do the gentlemen in charge of these stations make reports?
Mr. IIIl. To the chief of the bureau having the matter in charge. We have an experiment station at Tennallytown that reports to the Bureau of Animal Industry.
Mr. Floon. Where do we get the reports?
Mr. Hill. In the reports of the Bureau of Animal Industry. And there may be some tobacco experiments which you will get in the report of the Bureau of Plant Industry, and some of them in the report of the Bureau of Soils. There is a lot of that work done in both bureaus, but these are not what we call regular experiment stations.
Mr. SAMUEL. As to the farmers' bulletins; how many of those ?
Mr. Hill. I think we issue in the neighborhood of six to seven millions of the farmers' bulletins. We issue all that we have money to pay for, and we have calls for a great many more than we issue.
Mr. Davis. What becomes of those not distributed or not called for?
Mr. Hill. There are very few not called for.
Mr. Hill. Transferred to others. We used to carry over as many as 2,500,000 copies from one year to another, and the following year we added them to the estimated number that we were going to print that year, and thus had a larger proportion to give to Members. In that way we were giving the Members a quota of about 15,000. Congress was actually providing for about 10.000 and we were using the overlap. Two years ago the transfers from city Members to Members representing rural districts became so numerous that our overlap was reduced from 2.500.000 to 1,500,000, and we ought to have reduced the quota 2,000, but the Secretary hated to do that, so we only reduced it 1,000. Last year they cleaned us out so that we got down to hardpan, and this year the quota is reduced to about 10,000, which is about what the money will pay for. The overlap was insignificant and did not cut any figure.
Mr. Davey. If the quota is not used during the year, is it taken away?
Mr. Hill. There is a provision of law that gives you eleven months only. Four-fifths of the Farmers' Bulletins by law are reserved for use of Senators and Representatives, with the proviso that on the 31st , of May any undistributed quota shall go back to the Department. Mr. SAMUEL. What is the quota of each Member: do you know? Mr. HILL. This rear it is 10,000 for each Member and each Senator.
Mr. SAMUEL. Crop Correspondence, Bureau of Statistics. How many are there of those ?
Mr. Hill. There is no special annual report of the Bureau of Statistics beyond the report that he makes to the Secretary.
Mr. Sutel. It is not published separately?
Mr. CANDLER. Referring again to the Farmers' Bulletins, do you believe that there are enough of those printed, or should there be an additional amount?
Mr. Hill. I do not think that there are enough of those printed. It has the largest amount of information and the most widely distrib
(Witnesses: Hill, Zappone.)
uted in proportion to the cost of anything that we publish. The cost of the Farmers' Bulletins is a fraction over a cent and a half apiece, and they are published in the cheapest form that we can use consistent withi propriety. We put no cover on them, and we print them on a paper that will permit of running them through a very fit press. We do not put expensive illustrations in them, all we keep them down to a maximum of 18 pages. We try to run them about 32 pages on the average. Each one takes up some one particular subject, with information on that subject only. The result is that there is no waste, as there is where you publish a book upon a large number of subjects. There is, say, it very important article on rice in that book, and a man writes for that particular article. Ile will get the article on rice, but he will also get 70 or so or 100 pages of matter that he does not care for. With the Farmers' Bulletins it is different. I man writes to us saying that he wants something about the apple, and he gets information upon the apple and nothing but the appie. There is no superiluons matter. He may write to us that he wants something about the diseases of potatoes, and he gets that and nothing else. Each subject is segregated in a separate bulletin. We now have over 200 of them from which to select.
Mr. SAMUEL. If 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 are not enough, what would you estimate should be published !
Mr. Hill. We did not have too many for Members when we gave them 15,000 a piece, instead of 10,000, and that would necessitate an increase of about 50 per cent, or an increase to nine or ten million.
Mr. CANDLER. And the demand is really growing all the time?
Mr. Hill. Yes, sir. And you can readily understand that that is a class of publication that we have to give to correspondents who do work for us freely. Then there is another class of demand that is growing wonderfully for Farmers' Bulletins, and that is from the educational institutions, normal schools and high schools. They want them in quantities—that is, they will want 25, say, for a class. It seems like nothing to give 25 copies, at a cost of 40 cents, to those who are studying this subject, but when you get demands from educational institutions all over the United States it makes a very large draft.
Mr. ZAPPONE. When these publications are used as text-books by educational institutions, does not the law provide that they shall be purchased and paid for by those institutions?
Mr. Hill. The Public Printer has always been authorized to sell a number not exceeding 250, but the law provides that he shall receive the order therefor with the cash before it goes to press, and that is the difliculty.
Mr. CANDLER. Then you would recommend that this edition of Farmers' Bulletins be increased at least 50 per cent !
Mr. Hill. Yes; to 9,000,000 or 10,000,000. Mr. ZAPPONE. May I read the recommendation of the Secretary in his annual report in that connection? It says:
The total number of copies of Farmers' Bulletins issued during the fiscal year 1906 was 6,568,000. The demand for Farmers' Bulletins by Senators and Representatives, who, under the law, are entitled to 80 per cent of the whole number printed, has been so much larger than usual that practically none were left to carry over to the present fiscal year
(Witnesses: Hill, Zappone.)
Meaning the fiscal year 1907– There being, therefore, no surplus available, and the appropriation for the current fiscal year 1907 being no larger than formerly, the number available for each Congressman will this year be greatly reduced. I have therefore felt obliged to include provision for an increase in the number of these bulletins in my estimate for the ensuing year 1908. The number of copies of Farmers' Bulletins distributed during the past year on Congressional orders aggregated 5,279.476.
This will explain the necessity for the increase mentioned by Mr. Hill.
Mr. SAMUEL. Do you recognize requests not indorsed by Congressmen or Senators?
Mr. Hill. Oh, yes.
Mr. Hill. No, sir; we charge nothing to a Congressman's quota that is not ordered over his own signature. That goes out of the 20 per cent reserve for the Department. We get a great many demands from our own people. They are very handy things to use in correspondence. For instance, the Pomologist gets a letter inquiring about something in regard to apples, or something of that sort. Instead of writing a letter of four or five pages of typewritten matter, he writes a brief letter and sends a copy of the Farmers' Bulletin, marking the page. It being published at a cost of a fraction over a cent and a half, it is a great deal better to do that than to spend time writing a long letter. We use a great many in that way.
Mr. SAMUEL. How does the percentage of the requests from outsiders compare with those made by Congressmen and Senators?
Mr. Hill. Of our 20 per cent, 15, or three-fourth, will be distributed in accordance with miscellaneous demands, and the Members of Congress, as I say, are asking for their entire 80 per cent now. They have a very great many ways of distributing them. I can not say how many are in response to direct demands, but some of the Members have a very carefully worked out system for distribution without waiting for applications, while others, I think, simply send them out as asked for, while others send them out through granges and various institutions.
Mr. Zappone. There are also quite a number of publications sold to the public through the Superintendent of Public Documents, and I. would suggest that Mr. Hill explain that.
Mr. Hill. Departmental publications are the only ones that I have spoken of, those provided for by statutory law, and those, such as Farmers' Bulletins, issued by the Department as a whole.
Mr. Flood. Before you get through you might suggest any changes you think of which ought to be made with respect to the publications you have referred to.
Mr. Hill. An increase in the number of Yearbooks and an increase in the number of Farmers' Bulletins are the only things that I would recommend at present.
Mr. Flood. And a decrease in what?
Mr. Hul. We have actually made a decrease in the bound volumes of the report of the Bureau of Soils and Field Operations.
Mr. SAMUEL. You also recommend a decrease in the report of the Weather Bureau !
Mr. Hill. Professor Moore interjected a recommendation for a decrease from 1,000 to 2,000 in the report of the Weather Bureau.
I wanted to say in regard to the general accumulation, and in speaking of the Department publications generally, that is, the Bureau publications, as we call them, which are issued in each bureau, as its own series—bulletins and circulars generally—that they are of a less popular character than the Farmers' Bulletins. They are reports on their investigations, and are issued in comparatively small editions. It is, of course, necessary, when these men make investigations, that they shall report the results, and those results have to be reported in a more or less technical manner in order to satisfy the people engaged in the same line of work, mostly scientific men who are interested in the departmental work and want to know what methods are pursued in arriving at certain conclusions in order to test their value. So it is necessary now with respect to those publications to be a little more technical than with the Farmers' Bulletins or the Yearbook. Consequently, while they are not all technical, the technical publications are all issued as bulletins of the several departments. The technical reports appear in the bureau series.
Now, when I first came here, we used to issue those in very large editions, and I found a tremendous accumulation of undistributed publications. It was a natural thing that a man who had conducted an investigation during two or three years, which to him seemed to be of great importance, and by which he had arrived at results which seemed to him extremely valuable, would anticipate a tremendous demand for them, and before my office was established each bureau made out its own requisitions, and I think they were initialed or something by the chief clerk, who had but little time to look into the matter. The result was that they would ask for an edition of fifteen or twenty thousand where three to five thousand would have been sufficient.
We have changed all of that; we began to change it at once, and by keeping the plates on hand, if the demand grows beyond their anticipations, then an edition is issued to satisfy them. Take a bulletin of 60, 70, or 80 pages. The requisition is received at my office, itself accompanied by a scheme of distribution in which the chief of the bureau asking for the publication indicates just what he wants to do with it, and how many it will take for such purpose. The edition generally runs from three to five or six thousand, and when the edition is exhausted if the demand continues, and it is a demand which it seems proper to bė met, it is a very easy thing, as the plates are in existence to order a reprint, which will be ready in a few weeks, and in that way we avoid a great accumulation. But in spite of everything we can do we carry a tremendous lot of publications on hand, because we issue so many. I simply want to assure the committee that we do all we can to avoid an accumulation of publications for which there is no particular demand.
Mr. Davis. What ultimately becomes of this accumulation?
Mr. Hlut. The law provides that we shall turn it over to the superintendent of documents, and I will say in the early days I made him some very handsome presents, for which he did not seem to be very grateful.
Mr. Davis. What does he do with them?
Mr. Hill. I don't know, but he carries them on both shoulders, and pays a pretty good rent for storage.
Mr. Davis. The Government provides storage.
Mr. Hill. I think there should be some arrangement by which a departmental committee should be charged, in connection with the superintendent of documents and the Public Printer, with things like that, who should have the authority to destroy them or sell them for waste paper.
Mr. Davis. Or turn them over to some one who would like to have them.
Mr. Hill. They do that now. The superintendent of documents tells me that he has sent circulars to libraries with lists of what he has, offering these publications in the most seductive terms, and free of expense, if they will only indicate their willingness to receive them.
Mr. Davis. It might decrease the deficiency in the postal service if they were not sent.
Mr. Hull. But anything is better than paying rent for their storage if they are worth nothing.
Mr. Floon. They seem to be stored by the Public Printer.
Mr. Hill. Yes. By adopting the methods I have described we have reduced our accumulations of actual departmental publications very much indeed.
Mr. Davis. Then you think, Mr. Hill, that a committee to investigate what should be done with these surplus publications would be advisable?
Mr. Hill. I think it would be a very good idea, because naturally a man, if he has a certain number of publications which have become obsolete or useless, would hesitate to destroy them without some kind of formal authority, and would not like to be caught in the act of selling them for waste paper or burning them.
Mr. SAMUEL. Is it not a fact that they are doing that now?
Mr. IIILL. There is one thing that I wanted to call attention to and that is the sale of publications. That is something that I have been hammering at a good many years, and it is only in recent years that the superintendent of documents—since 1895—has been able to dispose of documents by sale. In issuing each particular publication, which we do for the information of the public, we divide then between those that are distributed gratuitously, like the Farmers' Bulletins and Circulars of Information and those to which prices are affixed, and we put in a note upon those to which prices are affixed that they are for sale by the superintendent of documents. It has not progressed very rapidly, but still satisfactorily, I think. It is only a few years ago that we thought he did a big thing when he sold five or six thousand copies of our publications. Last year he informed me that he sold 47,744 of the total publications of the Department out of a total of something over 75,000, showing that more than half of the publications sold were publications of this Department. At the same time our publications are of a very much cheaper