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(Witness: Miss Clark.)

Miss CLARK. The sheep crumbles, and we bind very little in it. It is not satisfactory.

The CHAIRMAX. Which do you find, then, is the most satisfactory, the cloth ? Miss CLARK. We bind chiefly in half morocco.

The CHAIRMAN. As between cloth and sheep, what do you say? do not know whether you have had any experience.

Miss CLARK. We bind very few volumes in cloth also, so that our experience with the two kinds of binding, sheep and cloth, is too limited to make a comparison. Some of our large volumes we bind in duck.

The CHAIRMAX. And buckram?

Miss CLARK. Yes; with buckram, which we find very satisfactory, and, for the cheaper bindings, very good.

The CHAIRMAN. How do you find buckram as to durability as com pared with law sheep?

Miss CLARK. It has been more satisfactory. We bind the books that are used most, however, in the best binding, morocco, and we avoid the use of the cheaper binding materials as much as we can.

The CHAIRMAN. Is your experience such that you could state the average life of the law-sheep binding, how long it will last on the shelves?

Miss CLARK. I do not feel that our use of this binding is sufficiently large for me to answer definitely.

The CHAIRMAN. To give us an intelligent idea? Miss CLARK. No, sir. The CHAIRMAN. Do you think of anything more that you would like to state?

Miss CLARK. No, sir. I have some copies of my last annual report here.

The CHAIRMAN. Is the use that is made of your library confined to the people in the Department, or do the public use it?

Miss CLARK. Frequently school teachers in the city come to the library to use it as a reference library, and scientists in agricultural colleges and experiment stations have been assisted considerably by it in the last two or three years. The libraries at the experiment stations and colleges are small, so whenever we are able to loan such institutions a book, a periodical, or a number of a periodical for a short time, and not interfere with the work of the Department, we do so.

The CHAIRMAN. Do they make anything like a general use of the library in that way?

Miss CLARK. They do not use it as much as I should think they would. There are a few of these scientists who know the library well, having worked in it during their vacations, who use it considerably. We have sent books to 26 different States and Territories during the last year, from Maine to Hawaii, and from Oregon to Florida. Those who know the resources of the library and have once borrowed from it continue to do so and appreciate the privilege very much.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you have any trouble in getting your books returned ?

Miss CLARK. No, sir. It takes a little time in some cases. If a man goes into the field without returning the books charged to his account,

(Witnesses: Miss Clark, Zappone.)

it sometimes takes time to get the book or books left in his office or which he may have with him.

The CHAIRMAX. So that your library is open to the public for use, if they have occasion to use it?

Miss CLARK. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Is there much general use of the library now, taking into account the Department people and the public; is your library used to any great extent?

Miss CLARK. Not to a great extent, except by scientific workers in the Department and in the agricultural colleges and experiment stations. Many letters asking for information relative to agricultural subjects and publications are answered by the library. But it is practically a reference library and not a circulating library.

The CHAIRMAN. It is a special scientific and technical library?
Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAX. Of course its use is almost confined to the professional and scientific classes?

Miss CLARK. Yes. We have several exceptionally large collections relative to special subjects. Botany is one of these. It ranks second or third best in the country. Our collection of books and pamphlets on entomology is in the first rank; probably the very first in economic entomology. I am told by the Entomologist that it is probably the best in the world on economic entomology.

The ČHAIRMAX. Is that in the nature of a museum?
Miss CLARK. No, sir; I refer to books.
The CHAIRMAN. And subjects illustrative of the literature?
Miss Clark. Books and pamphlets relative to entomology.
The CHAIRMAN. Relating to that particular subject ?
Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. I got the impression that you had articles of a different character?

Miss CLARK. No, sir; books and pamphlets relative to entomology. There is an excellent collection of books and periodicals relative to chemistry also. The collections relating to forestry and veterinary science are among the first.

The CHAIRMAN. Do you intend to have on hand all of the current literature relating to the subjects? For instance, you have works on veterinary science. Is it your purpose to keep your library up to date in connection with all the current publications; that is, not only periodicals, but text-books that may be issued by men writing upon veterinary science, for instance?

Miss CLARK. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. You calculate to keep up to date on all branches?
Miss CLARK. Yes.

The CHAIRMAN. So that the recent and current literature is accessible at all times?

Miss CLARK. Yes.

Mr. ZAPPONE. You have that all card indexed so that you can get a volume within a very short time?

Miss CLARK (interrupting). Yes.

Mr. ZAPPONE (continuing). On any scientific subject that may be under investigation or study in the Department; if a volume is

(Witnesses: Miss Clark, Zappone.)

needed, they send to you, and you refer to your card index and get it out?

Miss CLARK. Yes. The scientists in the Department send in requests for such publications as they need, and purchases are made largely in response to these requests for technical literature in connection with their work.

Mr. ZAPPONE. Provided you have not the volume in stock. Miss CLARK. Yes; we borrow also a great many volumes from the Library of Congress and from other Department libraries, when the books are only occasionally referred to. In many cases, instead of buying a book which is needed occasionally, for a short time, I find out if the book is in the city, and if it is, borrow it, usually from the Library of Congress or from another Department library. Often we send to New York, Boston, Cambridge, and St. Louis for books that can not be found elsewhere in the country. We receive many courtesies in this direction.

The CHAIRMAN. Are they books which are out of print, practically out of print, or simply unusual and extraordinary? That is to say, are they books that are out of the usual line, and therefore difficult to get?

Miss CLARK. Very often they are rare books, and they are often expensive books that we would not be justified in purchasing for the occasional use that we might have for them. For this reason we make use of the system of interlibrary loans now established among the large libraries in this country. We reciprocate whenever we can in loans to these libraries that do us similar favors.

The CHAIRMAN. That is, instead of aiming to have on hand all the literature that relates to a subject, your purpose is to have so much of the literature as is of general use by the scientific people who have occasion to use the library?

Miss Clark. Usually 'the books we borrow are either very expensive or rare books, or on kindred subjects not relating definitely to our work. We intend to have everything in our library that relates specifically to the work of the Department.

The CHAIRMAN. That is, it is your purpose to do that?

Miss CLARK. Yes. I understand that the Librarian of Congress looks to our library to be more complete along our specific lines than even the Library of Congress; otherwise there would be an unnecessary duplication of many books. That library can borrow from our library as we borrow from it, for occasional use.

The CHAIRMAN. I think that is all. We are very much obliged to vou, Miss Clark.




Monday, January 21, 1907. The committee this day met. Present: Messrs. Littlefield (chairman) and Samuel.



(The witness was duly sworn by the chairman.)
The CHAIRMAX. You are Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry?
Doctor Wiley. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAX. I would like to ask you whether or not all the employees in your Bureau are, so far as their salaries and promotions are concerned, subject, in the first instance, to your direction and control, and if your action thereon is finally subject to the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture?

Doctor WILEY. That is, I believe, the usual course. I do not know of any exception to that rule.

The CHAIRMAK. That is the practice! Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir. The CHAIRMAX. Só that in a sense you are the responsible head of the personnel?

Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir: I am.

The CHAIRMAX. Are there any persons employed in your Bureau who have employment elsewhere?

Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir.

The CILARMAN. Tre there any persons employed in your Bureau who bave employment under the Government elsewhere?

Doctor WILEY. No, sir; not to my knowledge. The CHAIRMAN: Ilow many employees have you that have employment under your Bureau who are engaged in private employinent ?

Doctor Wiley. I should say there might be five or six altogether, so far as my knowledge extends. I think I know about everyone employed anywhere.

The Chairman. What private employment are those five or six engaged in ?

Doctor Wiley. I do not think any of them is engaged in any private employment, except perhaps in one instance. There is one clerk, Miss Agnes M. Nordeman, who, by permission of the Secretary, has done a few evenings' work for a private firm in auditing their ac

(Witness: Wiley.)

counts during the winter. She is a clerk at $720. According to our rules, anyone who wishes to do any work outside must make an application, first, to the chief of the Bureau. This is then submitted to the Secretary, with a full statement of the facts, and if approved by him the permission is granted. That is the only one. She is not doing any private work now. That was only for a half dozen evenings in the winter.

The CHAIRMAN. That is a minor matter.
Doctor Wiley. Yes, sir; a very minor matter.
The CHAIRMAN. Who is the next one?

Doctor Wiley. I think there are four or five people employed by the day and only paid for the number of days' work they do.

The CHAIRMAN. What do you call them?

Doctor Wiley. On page 228 you will find the first one, Mary E. Pennington, who is employed in Philadelphia. She is a bacteriological chemist with a very high reputation. She is employed at a per diem of $7.25. This lady does much bacteriological work for the city of Philadelphia.

The CHAIRMAN. On days other than when she receives compensation from your Department?

Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. She does additional work for the city of Philadelphia?

Doctor Wiley. She does some work for the city of Philadelphia every day in the health office.

The Chairman. Every day?
Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Some of the work for the city of Philadelphia is done on days when the Government pays her?

Doctor Wiley. Some; but she charges by the hour, so many hours making a working day.

The CHAIRMAN. What does she get?
Doctor Wiley. She was paid $634.37 last year.

The CHAIRMAN. That was at the rate of $7.25 per diem-that is, per day?

Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Under that she would have worked nearly a hundred days?

Doctor WILEY. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. On those same days, if I understand, she was also rendering service to the city of Philadelphia ?

Doctor Wiley. Part of the time. She works about two hours a day for the city of Philadelphia.

The CHAIRMAN. How many hours does she work for the Department?

Doctor WILEY, How many hours for the Department?

The CHAIRMAN. She works some hours for the city of Philadelphia and some for your Bureau ?

Doctor Wiley. When she works only part of the day, she charges at the rate of $7.25.

The CHAIRMAN. How much is that per hour, or how many hours ?
Doctor WILEY. Seven hours' work.
The CHAIRMAN. She gets about $1.03 per hour?


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